Course Descriptions - Undergraduate Calendar 2007-2008

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B I O L O G Y 

Notes

  1. The Department of Biology reserves the right to limit enrolment in Biology courses to those individuals whose Academic Plans require those courses.
  2. Biology Courses: While the Biology Department wishes to teach all students who request its courses, the Department's resources are limited. Priority of access to crowded courses will be given to students whose academic plan requires those particular courses be taken. Students who do not attend the first week of laboratory classes may find that their place has been given to onother student.

BIOL 100s


BIOL 110 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003654
Introductory Zoology
A study of the functional morphology of selected animals with special emphasis on the various grades of organization and development in the different phyla. [Offered: F]

BIOL 112 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003650
Introductory Biology 2
An introduction to the basic principles of the structure and function of plants and animals within an ecological and evolutionary framework. The biology of multicellular organisms will be emphasized.
[Note: Cannot be counted for credit toward a joint degree in Biology and the Faculty of Environmental Studies. Offered: W]

BIOL 120 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003657
Introduction to Plant Structure and Function
A brief introduction to plant diversity, and the anatomy and physiology of vascular plants. The course will include a description of major cell and tissue types, and their organization in roots, stems, and leaves. Topics such as the processes of water and ion uptake, photosynthesis, long distance transport, and growth regulation will also be covered. [Offered: W,S]

BIOL 130 LEC,TST,TUT 0.50Course ID: 011617
Introductory Cell Biology
An introduction to the concepts of cell biology with emphasis on (1) the structural organization of the cell and (2) the function of critical molecular processes that are characteristic of living organisms.
[Note: BIOL 130L may be required for entrance to certain professional/graduate programs. Offered: F,S]
Antireq: PHYS 381
Also offered by Distance Education

BIOL 130L LAB 0.25Course ID: 011567
Cell Biology Laboratory
Experiments to study the principles of cell biology that are elaborated in BIOL 130. [Offered: F,S]
Coreq: BIOL 130.
Antireq: BIOL 230

BIOL 139 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003665
Genetics
Mendelian genetics. Chromosomal mechanisms in mitosis and meiosis. The origin, inheritance and adaptive signifcance of chromosomal changes. Nucleic acids as the carriers of genetic information. Natural selection and the evolution of genetic systems. [Offered: W,S]
Also offered by Distance Education

BIOL 140 LEC 0.50Course ID: 011618
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Introduction to the biology of bacterial and archaeal organisms. Topics include cell structure and function, methods of cultivation, genetics, phylogeny and taxonomy, and metabolic and genetic diversity.
[Note: BIOL 140L must be completed before taking BIOL 241. BIOL 140L may be required for entrance to certain professional/graduate programs. Offered: S, F]
Also offered by Distance Education

BIOL 140L LAB 0.25Course ID: 011568
Microbiology Laboratory
Experiments to study the principles of microbiology that are elaborated in BIOL 140. [Offered: S, F]
Coreq: BIOL 140 (effective Sept 1/2003).
Antireq: BIOL 240

BIOL 200s


BIOL 201 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003651
Human Anatomy
Basic anatomical features of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and reproductive systems of the human.
[Note: Not intended as a core biology course, but may be taken as an elective or towards a minor in Biology. Cannot be counted for credit toward a BSc (Kinesiology ) degree. Offered: W]

BIOL 208 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 012245
Analytical Methods in Molecular Biology
An introduction to molecular methods used to analyze the structure of genes and genomes, including DNA sequencing, cloning, restriction mapping and bioinformatic tools. Techniques to monitor transcript and protein abundance, protein-protein and DNA-protein interactions will also be covered.
[Note: BIOL 140 is recommended. Recommended for students intending to take upper year molecular biology courses. Courses requiring this as a prerequisite are: BIOL 342, 365, 366, 428, 431, 434, 435L, 438. Offered: F,S]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139;
Antireq: BIOL 330

BIOL 211 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003655
Introductory Vertebrate Zoology
An introduction to the structure, evolution and development of vertebrate organ systems. [Offered: W]

BIOL 221 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003659
Introductory Survey of Fungi, Algae and Plants
A comparative survey of the morphology and life histories of protoctistan and true fungi, prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, bryophytes and vascular plants; observations on the evolution and ecological and economic significance; examples taken from the local flora, exotic habitats and the fossil record. [Offered: F]

BIOL 241 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003667
Introduction to Applied Microbiology
Introduction to microbial ecology, environmental microbiology, food microbiology and medical microbiology. Topics in environmental microbiology include biogeochemical cycling and biological treatment of wastes and pollutants. Topics in medical microbiology include concepts of immunology and host-parasite relationships. [Offered: W,S]
Prereq: BIOL 140 and 140L

BIOL 250 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003668
Ecology
An introduction to the study of the relationships of plants and animals to their environment. The nature of ecosystems, ecological energetics, biogeochemical cycling, community ecology, introduction to population biology. [Offered: F]
Antireq: ENVS 200

BIOL 265 LEC 0.50Course ID: 009491
Diversity of Life
An introduction to the diversity of living organisms from simple prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes. Current ideas on classification and phylogeny will be compared with traditional schemes. Morphology, ecology, and economic uses of representative Phyla and Divisions will be discussed. [Offered: W]

BIOL 273 LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003669
Principles of Human Physiology 1
The physiology of major organ systems of the human body. Topics include neurophysiology and peripheral nervous system, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the components of blood, respiratory system and immune system. The combination of BIOL 273 and BIOL 373 covers all of the major topics of human physiology.
[Note: BIOL 273L may be required for entrance to certain professional/graduate programs. Offered: W,S]
Prereq: BIOL 130;
Antireq: BIOL 301A, 301B, SCI 351, 352
Also offered by Distance Education

BIOL 273L LAB 0.25Course ID: 011569
Human Physiology 1 Laboratory
Experiments to study the principles of human physiology that are elaborated in BIOL 273. [Offered: W,S]
Coreq: BIOL 273 (effective Sept 1/2003).
Antireq: BIOL 301A, 301B

BIOL 280 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012773
Introduction to Biophysics
Introduction to a physical understanding of biological systems at macro and molecular scales. The course is intended for 2nd year science and engineering students and will cover a broad spectrum of topics in biophysics, as well as an introduction to neurobiology, nanotechnology and biotechnology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: Level at least 2A Honours Science or Engineering plans
(Cross-listed with PHYS 280)

BIOL 298 LAB 0.25Course ID: 003670
Field Course 1
A series of one-day field trips from campus held on Saturdays during the first half of term (omitting Thanksgiving weekend), designed to introduce students to the flora, fauna and major ecosystems of Southern Ontario. Written reports will be required for each trip.
[Note: Field trip fee of $75 is required towards the cost of transportation. Minimum enrolment of 24 students is required. Offered: F]
Coreq: BIOL 250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 300s


BIOL 302 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003673
Functional Histology
A hierarchical approach to biological structure with an emphasis on functional morphology. Starting with the cell, the fundamental unit of structure and function, the material progressively develops how cells organize to form tissues such as epithelium, connective tissue and muscle. Emphasis on how these tissue building blocks cooperate to form the major organs and organ systems of the human body. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 273

BIOL 303 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003674
Introductory Developmental Biology and Embryology
Fundamental processes and concepts in embryonic development including the acquisition of multicellularity, organization of the early embryo, morphogenesis of tissues, major organ systems, fetal membranes, growth, differentiation and analysis of common developmental defects. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139

BIOL 308 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012246
Principles of Molecular Biology
Prokaryote and eukaryote genome structure and replication; mechanisms of gene expression and regulation.
[Note: BIOL 140 recommended. BIOL 308 is recommended for those wishing a general understanding in molecular biology. Students intending to take several upper year molecular biology courses are advised to take BIOL 208 and 308 concurrently. Required as a prerequisite for the following courses: BIOL 428, 431, 434, 435L, 438, 441, 442, 448. Offered: F, S]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139;
Antireq: BIOL 330

BIOL 310 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003675
Invertebrate Zoology
The biology of invertebrate animals, excluding arthropods. Topics covered will include reproduction, development, life history, feeding, locomotion, and behaviour. Laboratories will introduce the major invertebrate phyla. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 110

BIOL 321 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 010002
Plant Anatomy and Morphogenesis
Plant structure in relation to tissue formation and development with particular reference to the angiosperms. Cell, tissue and organ differentiation will be discussed. Phenotypic variation in response to environmental influences will also be covered. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 120, 130

BIOL 323 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003680
Plant Physiology
A study of plant physiological processes with an emphasis on the role of key metabolic pathways in plant growth and development. Topics such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, growth regulators, mineral nutrition, water relations, and stress physiology will be covered. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 120 or 331 and CHEM 233 or 237

BIOL 325 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 010179
Flowering Plants
A study of floral morphology in relation to classification and evolution. An introduction to taxonomy and nomenclature. History of taxonomy. Systems of classification. Mechanisms of pollination. [Offered: F]

BIOL 330 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003683
Molecular Biology
Structure, expression and regulation of prokaryote and eukaryote genes, including DNA replication, transcription and protein synthesis. Introduction to recombinant DNA technology.
[Note: BIOL 140 recommended. Offered: F,W]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139;
Antireq: BIOL 208, 308
Only offered by Distance Education

BIOL 331 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003685
Advanced Cell Biology
The functional organization of cells with particular reference to cell-cell interaction, the structure, function and development of organelles and the biological roles of cellular membranes. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 130 and CHEM 233 or 237; or Science and Business/Biotechnology Specialization or Honours Biotechnology/Economics or Honours Bioinformatics

BIOL 342 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003691
Molecular Biotechnology 1
Molecular biotechnology applies the principles of recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering, gene cloning) to the development of commercial products. The methods of recombinant DNA technology, molecular diagnostic systems for detecting diseases and transgenic organisms will be discussed.
[Note: Recommended prerequisite BIOL 241. It is recommended that BIOL 342 be taken after completion of second year. Offered: F,S]
Prereq: BIOL 140, BIOL 208 or 330

BIOL 345 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003734
Microorganisms in Foods
Food preservation, spoilage, poisoning and modern concepts in quality assurance programs are studied. The aim is to understand factors governing microbial changes in foods. Problem solving in the food industry is emphasized. Laboratory work will reflect current practices in quality control and testing.
[Note: Formerly BIOL 445. Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241

BIOL 348L LAB,TUT 0.50Course ID: 011570
Laboratory Methods in Microbiology
Selected experiments to provide students with a range of laboratory skills in microbiology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241

BIOL 351 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003740
Aquatic Ecology
Study of the structure and function of lake and stream ecosystems. The course emphasizes biological components and processes, but includes the origin and nature of lake and stream systems and the fundamentals of surface water chemistry and physics. Human influences, management options and current issues will be examined with readings and project work.
[Note: Formerly BIOL 451. As of Fall 2010 requisites will change to: Prereq: BIOL 350. Antireq: SCI 453, 454, 455. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 250 and any two of BIOL 110, 120, 140, 221, 265.
Antireq: SCI 453, 454, 455

BIOL 354 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003694
Environmental Toxicology 1
An introduction to the basic theories, principles and techniques of environmental toxicology. A comparative study of the effects of specific groups of toxicants on ecosystems; biodegradation and cycling. [Offered: F,S]
Prereq: One of CHE 102, CHEM 120, 121

BIOL 359 LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003748
Evolution
A study of the processes of evolution; the differentiation of populations and the origin of new forms of life. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 139

BIOL 361 LEC 0.50Course ID: 009500
Biostatistics and Experimental Design
An introduction to hypothesis testing and experimental design in Biology. Topics will include: exploratory data analysis, analysis of variance, categorical data analysis, correlation, linear regression, multiple linear regression, power analysis, visualization tools and statistical software. [Offered: W]
Prereq: STAT 202 or 204 or ECON 221 or ENVS 278

BIOL 365 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 009501
Resources in Bioinformatics
A survey of the resources available for analysis of DNA, RNA and protein sequence data. The focus will be on existing tools and databases and their application. Included will be practical experience with web-based bioinformatics tools. This course is primarily intended for Bioinformatics and Computational Science students. [Offered: S]
Prereq: BIOL 208 or 330, CS 134, MATH 137;
Antireq: BIOL 366

BIOL 366 LEC 0.50Course ID: 011508
Introduction to Bioinformatics
An introduction to the basics of bioinformatics including computational tools and databases used in the collection and analysis of DNA, RNA and proteins. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 208 or 330; Not open to Bioinformatics students;
Antireq: BIOL 365

BIOL 370 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003696
Comparative Animal Physiology 1
A comparative study of the ways in which animals regulate the volume and concentration of body fluids, excrete, digest and absorb nutrients. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 110 or 211; BIOL 273

BIOL 371 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003697
Comparative Animal Physiology 2
A comparative study of the nervous, endocrine, circulatory, and respiratory systems. Topics also include sense organs, regulation of pH and examples of how animals survive under extreme conditions. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273

BIOL 373 LEC 0.50Course ID: 010000
Principles of Human Physiology 2
The physiology of major organ systems of the human body. Topics include the central nervous system, the sense organs, the digestive system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system, and the excretory system. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273.
Antireq: BIOL 301A, 301B, SCI 351, 352
Also offered by Distance Education

BIOL 373L LAB,TST 0.25Course ID: 010001
Human Physiology 2 Laboratory
Laoratory exercises to study the principles of human physiology that are described in BIOL 373. [Offered: W]
Coreq: BIOL 373

BIOL 374L LAB 0.25Course ID: 003698
Techniques in Animal Physiology
Laboratory exercises and computer-based simulations to study the functions of the cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, digestive and excretory systems of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Students will learn the techniques of recording data with mechanical and electronic instruments, handling of animals, and analysis of data with computational software. [Offered: W]
Coreq: BIOL 370, 371

BIOL 381 LEC 0.50Course ID: 005367
Restoration Ecology
Exploration of the philosophical, conceptual, political and practical foundations of restoration in ecosystems, siting strategies, succession management, community assembly and restoration in different habitats.
Prereq: ENVS 200 or BIOL 250 and one of ENVS 178 or STAT 202
(Cross-listed with ERS 381)

BIOL 382 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 011910
Computational Modeling of Cellular Systems
An introduction to dynamic mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The emphasis is on using computational tools to investigate differential equation-based models. A variety of cellular phenomena are discussed, including ion pumps, membrane potentials, intercellular communication, genetic networks, regulation of metabolic pathways, and signal transduction.
[Note: Offered in the Winter of even numbered years.]
Prereq: MATH 118 or 119 or 128 or 138/148; Third year standing in an Honours plan
(Cross-listed with AMATH 382)

BIOL 383 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012580
Tropical Ecosystems
This course examines the fundamental concepts of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical climates. The course has three sections: (1) biophysical aspects (climate, location, landforms, soil, vegetation), (2) tropical resource systems (forest- and agroecosystems) within the framework of conventional and sustainable resource extraction, and (3) current conservation issues. Case studies are presented.
Prereq: BIOL 250 or ENVS 200 or ERS 218 or consent of instructor
(Cross-listed with ERS 383)

BIOL 400s


BIOL 403 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003701
Advanced Topics in Developmental Biology
Explores the cellular and molecular basis of developmental phenomena in animals. Lectures will emphasize the experimental basis for both historical and contemporary knowledge with a focus on the major developmental systems in model organisms. Course content will concentrate on themes that permeate current published research.
[Note: BIOL 208 is recommended. as a prerequisite. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 303, (308 or 330) and 331

BIOL 412 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003705
Arthropod Zoology
A survey of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, with emphasis on their classification, interrelationships and ways of life. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 110

BIOL 426 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003713
Phycology
Algae and applied uses of algae. Topics include examination of algal groups from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. Uses of algae in industry and food as well as negative impacts of various algal groups. [Notes: Offered in odd numbered years. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 120 or BIOL 221

BIOL 428 LAB,LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003716
Plant Molecular Genetics
An examination of the current molecular techniques used to study plant development physiology. Topics include mutant isolation, transcript and metabolite profiling, gene silencing and protein localization. [Offered: W]
Prereq: (BIOL 208 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 431 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003718
Bacterial Molecular Genetics
Bacterial molecular biology with an emphasis on the use of genetic tools to study the biology of microorganisms. Topics include mutagenesis, conjugation, recombination, gene regulation, plasmids, transposons, bacteriophage and genomics. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, (BIOL 208 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 432 LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003720
Molecular Biotechnology 2
How recombinant DNA technology is used to produce vaccines, plant growth promoting bacteria, pharmaceuticals, crop plants and other commercial products will be discussed. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 342

BIOL 433 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003721
Plant Biotechnology
Techniques and applications of plant transformation and cell culture for plant improvement, propagation and chemical production. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 120, 130

BIOL 434 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 003722
Human Molecular Genetics
Recent advances in human molecular genetics will be examined with emphasis on how human disease-causing genes are mapped, identified, isolated and characterized. Examples will draw from research on Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington disease, cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer disease, cancer, vision defects and other disorders. [Offered: F]
Prereq: (BIOL 208 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 435L LAB,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003724
Molecular Biology Techniques
Selected experiments to provide students with a range of laboratory skills in recombinant DNA technology. [Offered: F,W]
Prereq: BIOL 140L, (BIOL 208 or 330), (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 438 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 003727
Molecular Biology of Animal Development
An examination of the current major issues in the regulation of gene expression during animal development with emphasis on technical and conceptual advances. Current research literature will be reviewed. [Offered: W]
Prereq: (BIOL 208 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330) and 303

BIOL 439 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003728
Environmental and Natural Products Biochemistry
This course deals with the functions, distribution and environmental ramifications of natural compounds produced by plants and other biological systems. Natural products are those compounds usually described as secondary metabolites, i.e. those apparently non-essential products whose physiological and ecological functions are either obscure or are of peripheral importance to the organism. However, many of these non-essential products have profound competitive, economic and pharmacological significance; and as research proceeds, their physiological roles within the parent organisms are becoming clearer. As well, this course has a strong emphasis on how environmental chemical and physical processes impact on living organisms and their biochemistry. [Offered: F]
Prereq: CHEM 233 or 237 and CHEM 264 or 266

BIOL 441 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003730
Immunology
An introduction to the vertebrate immune response; the cells and tissues of the lymphoid system; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; initiation and regulation of the immune response; the immune system and disease, techniques used in immunology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241, BIOL 308 or 330

BIOL 442 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003731
Virology
A survey of viral structures, life cycles, and the interactions of viruses with their hosts. The laboratory component will include demonstrations of procedures used for viral detection and titration, as well as individual library research projects. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241, (308 or 330)

BIOL 443 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003732
Fermentation Biotechnology
Biology of industrial micro-organisms: fermentation systems; fermentation raw materials; downstream processing; biomass production; food fermentations; production of industrial chemicals, food additives, enzymes and other products by fermentation. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241

BIOL 444 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003733
Microorganisms and Disease
A study of the microorganisms involved in pathogenesis, their mode of infection, symptoms and prevention of diseases. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241

BIOL 446 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003735
Microbial Ecology
A study of the ecological roles of microorganisms. Examples from freshwater, terrestrial, marine and other ecosystems will be used to illustrate the activities and importance of microorganisms in these habitats. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241

BIOL 447 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003736
Environmental Microbiology
A study of the environmental impact of microorganisms. Aspects of pollution, waste treatment, biodegradation of environmental contaminants, and nutrient cycling will be examined. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241
Also offered by Distance Education

BIOL 448 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003737
Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry
A study of the physiology of microorganisms. Provides biochemical and molecular level detail on the diverse structures and metabolic functions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal cells. Aspects of microbial growth, nutrition and metabolism are examined in the context of how microorganisms develop diverse solutions for meeting essential requirements for life. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241, BIOL 308 or 330

BIOL 449 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012173
Public Health Microbiology
How the health of human populations is influenced by microbial communities. Aspects of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, factors influencing the emergence of microbial pathogens and antibiotic-resistant strains, means to control undesired microbial populations in habitats such as water, biodegradable materials and food will be discussed. Approaches to the regulation and monitoring of microbial agents will also be examined.
[Note: It is recommended that one or more of BIOL 345, BIOL 441, BIOL 444, BIOL 447 be taken before or with BIOL 449. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 241

BIOL 450 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 003739
Marine Biology
Ecological processes and evolutionary adaptation are explored in the world's largest and most diverse ecosystems. The major ocean habitats will be characterized, stressing their importance as resources, moderators of climate and reservoirs of biodiversity. [Offered: F]
Prereq: Any two of BIOL 110, 250, 490A/B or 491A/B or 492 or 498A/B.
Antireq: SCI 453

BIOL 452 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003741
Quantitative Fisheries Biology
The practices of fisheries science including the effects of industrial fisheries on fish stocks, methods of capture, obtaining, using and interpretation of vital statistics of fish stocks, population estimation, stock-recruitment, growth, mortality and fecundity. Emphasis is placed on the use of statistical information for making ecological inferences about the status of fish populations. Familiarity with linear regression is essential. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 250, STAT 202 or 204

BIOL 453 LEC 0.50Course ID: 005992
Wetlands
Basic concepts on the distribution, hydrology, geochemistry, formation and ecology of wetlands with an emphasis on temperate and subarctic systems. The uses and management of wetlands are considered with the view of wetlands as functional ecosystems.
[Note: Field trip fee: $10 - $15. As of Fall 2010 requisite will change to: Prereq: BIOL 350 or GEOG 102 or EARTH 123. Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 250 or GEOG 102 or EARTH 123 or ENVS 200
(Cross-listed with GEOG 405)

BIOL 455 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003744
Ecological Risk Assessment and Management
Examination of the use of scientific information characterizing the risks posed to the envrionment by anthropogenic stresses. Discussions will take place in the context of aquatic ecology and presume a background of standard aquatic toxicology methods. Methods for assessing risks, including environmental impact assessment, risk quotients, national and international risk assessment paradigms, and cumulative effects assessment will be examined. Critical connections between assessment and management will also be discussed. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 250, 354, STAT 202 or 204

BIOL 456 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003745
Population Biology
The analysis of the structure and dynamics of plant and animal populations. Theoretical, mathematical and experimental approaches to the study of population ecology.
[Note: Students are advised that this course involves computer and numerical applications. Please note that as of Fall 2010 requisites will change to: Prereq: BIOL 350 and one of STAT 202, 204, ECON 221, ENVS 278. Offered: F]
Prereq: (BIOL 250 or ENVS 200) and one of STAT 202, 204, ECON 221, ENVS 278

BIOL 457 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003746
Analysis of Communities
A study of the organization, structure and development of communities with emphasis on vegetation change. Topics include: diversity, stability; succession; sampling procedures and multivariate analysis. [Offered: W]
Prereq: (BIOL 250 or ENVS 200) and one of STAT 202, 204, ECON 221, ENVS 278

BIOL 461 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003751
Advanced Biostatistics
Advanced aspects of statistics and experimental design for biologists. Topics will include analysis of variance (factorial, hierarchical and blocking designs; fixed- and random-effects models); a-priori and a-posteriori comparisons; multivariate analysis of variance; analysis of covariance; multiple linear regression; multivariate statistics (indirect and direct gradient analysis). [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 361; Not open to students in the Faculty of Mathematics.
Antireq: (for Arts and Environmental Studies students) PSYCH 202, 391, STAT 322, 430

BIOL 465 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 010003
Current Topics in Bioinformatics
This course will deal with current issues and trends in Bioinformatics. The course will be divided between lectures and student seminars. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 365.
Coreq: CS 482

BIOL 470 LAB,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003750
Methods of Aquatic Ecology
An introduction to methods used to sample and characterize the ecological structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, including basic aspects of the abiotic environment. Field trips to lake and stream sites are combined with laboratory analysis of samples and data. While the main emphasis is on the techniques, the exercises also provide direct experience with some of the natural and anthropogenic variation observable in aquatic systems.
[Note: Formerly BIOL 460L. Field Trip fee of $60 is required toward the cost of transportation. As of Fall 2010 requisites will change to: Prereq: BIOL 350. Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 250 and any two of BIOL 110, 120, 140, 221, 265

BIOL 473 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003756
Vertebrate Reproductive Physiology
A study of the endocrine and reproductive systems of vertebrates. Major topics include hormone secretion, mechanism of hormone action, hypothalamic regulation of pituitary function, ovarian and testicular physiology, hormone assays, gametogenesis and fertilization. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273

BIOL 474 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 010354
Bioprocessing
The course will provide an understanding of the principles and practices of processing biological materials, which represents an essential core activity of the biotechnology, agri-food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Individual processing operations involved and important industrial processes will be developed in this course. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140, 140L, 241

BIOL 475 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 011571
Current Topics in Applied Microbiology
Students will explore a variety of topics in applied microbiology as reflected by journal articles in the current literature. [Offered W].
Prereq: BIOL 241, Level at least 3A

BIOL 476 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012174
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
This course is an introduction to the cell and molecular biology of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Following an overview of the gross anatomical structures and specialized functions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system, the course will focus on the cell and molecular biology of neurons. Major topics will include: the synthesis and trafficking of neuronal proteins, voltage and transmitter gated ion channels, membrane potential, and the molecules and mechanisms of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and central synapses. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273, 331

BIOL 479 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012404
Population Genetics and Evolution
This course provides an overview of the interplay among mutation, random and non-random mating, genetic drift, gene flow and selection within and among natural populations. Special emphasis is placed on the dynamic role these factors play in the process of population divergence, and ultimately speciation. Case studies will illustrate the application of population genetic methodology in fields such as ecology, conservation biology, and forensic sciences. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 139, 359

BIOL 480 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012427
Molecular Ecology
This course will provide an overview of the application of modern molecular methodologies such as DNA sequencing and microsatellite genotyping to Ecology and Organismal Biology. Topics covered will include parentage and mating systems, population analysis, species delineation and phylogeography. Special emphasis will be placed on the importance and use of molecular methods in conservation biology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 208 or 308 or 330; BIOL 250; BIOL 359

BIOL 483 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012166
Animal Cell Biotechnology
A study of the techniques and applications of animal cell culture to biotechnology. Topics include basic cell culture technique, gene modification, products of animal cell culture and large scale productions. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130 and level at least 3A

BIOL 484 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 012330
Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics
The role of classical genetic analysis in the context of today's genomic era. Topics: meiotic recombination, meiosis, complementation analysis, chromosome aberrations, and genetic interactions. Methods used in model eukaryotic genetic organisms such as forward and reverse genetic screens, genetic mosaics, conditional mutants, and genetic mapping will be discussed. Examples will illustrate how genes continue to be identified using classical-based approaches in a variety of biological processes, including cell cycle progression, cancer and metastasis, learning and memory, as well as pattern formation and embryonic development. Alternatives to traditional mutagenesis-based screens and the links between classical and molecular genetics will also be discussed. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139; BIOL 308 or 330

BIOL 488 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 012267
Ecotoxicology and Watershed Management
The course will explore the scientific principles affecting the ecological structure and function of watersheds as well as emerging threats to environmental quality. Case studies, with an emphasis on Canadian and local examples, will be used to more fully understand scientific principles and explore the impacts of natural and human activities on the ecology of drainage basins. The course may include a local field trip. [Offered: W] Field trip fee: $20 to offset cost of transportation.
Prereq: BIOL 250, 354

BIOL 490A LAB 0.50Course ID: 003762
Field Course in Marine Biology
A two-week study of marine environments and biota. Emphasis on the flora and fauna of rocky shores, mud flats, and the sub-tidal benthos. Grade based on a field notebook and a research project. This course will normally be held at Huntsman Marine Lab, New Brunswick each September. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year also qualify.
[Note: Field trip fee: $400-$2300. Please see field trip co-ordinator in January]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 490B LAB 0.50Course ID: 003763
Field Course in Marine Biology
A two-week study of marine environments and biota. Emphasis on the flora and fauna of rocky shores, mud flats, and the sub-tidal benthos. Grade based on a field notebook and a research project. This course will normally be held at Huntsman Marine Lab, New Brunswick each September. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year also qualify.
[Note: Field trip fee: $400-$2300. Please see field trip co-ordinator in January]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 491A LAB 0.50Course ID: 003765
Aquatic Field Biology
A two-week study of the flora and fauna of lakes, bogs and streams. Emphasis on biosystematics, distribution and dynamics of organisms. Both population and community approaches are stressed. This course will normally be held in Algonquin Park, Ontario each September. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology, at other times of the year also qualify.
[Note: Field trip fee: $200 - $3300. Please see field trip co-ordinator in January]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 491B LAB 0.50Course ID: 003766
Field Course in Terrestrial and Aquatic Biology
A two-week study of the flora and fauna of terrestrial environments, lakes and streams. Emphasis on biosystematics, distribution and dynamics of organisms. Both population and community approaches are stressed. This course will normally be held in Algonquin Park, Ontario each September. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year also qualify.
[Note: Field trip fee: $400 - $1500. Please see field trip co-ordinator in January]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 492 LAB 0.50Course ID: 003767
Marine Mammals and Seabirds
A three-week field course at the Huntsman Marine Science Centre, St. Andrews, NB. Marine mammals and seabirds will be observed under natural conditions through frequent field trips at sea and ashore. There is a strong emphasis on field research and each student will complete an independent research project. Lectures and labs will introduce the evolution, zoogeography, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behaviour of diving air-breathing vertebrates.
[Note: This course will normally be offered during the first weeks of August. Field trip fee = approx.$1800]
Department Consent Required

BIOL 498A LAB 0.25Course ID: 003770
Field Course 2
A general interest field course usually of one week duration. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year also qualify.
[Note: Field trip fee: $200 - $600]
Department Consent Required
Coreq: BIOL 250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 498B LAB 0.25Course ID: 003771
Field Course 2
A general interest field course usually of one week duration. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year also qualify.
[Note: Field trip fee: $200 - $600]
Department Consent Required
Coreq: BIOL 250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 499A LAB 0.50Course ID: 003772
Senior Honours Project
A senior-year research project.
[Note: Normally, only students attaining either a 73% or better cumulative major average or a 78% or better major average in their two most recent terms (normally 3A and 3B) will be accepted into this course. May only be taken with the permission of the BIOL 499 co-ordinator. Consult the BIOL 499 manual for details. A final grade for BIOL 499A will be submitted only after completion of 499B. Normally, BIOL 499A and 499B may not be taken concurrently without prior permission of the BIOL 499 co-ordinator]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Cumulative Major Average at least 73%; Honours Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, Bioinformatics students only

BIOL 499B LAB 0.50Course ID: 003773
Senior Honours Project
A senior-year research project.
[Note: Normally, only students attaining either a 73% or better cumulative major average or a 78% or better major average in their two most recent terms (normally 3A and 3B) will be accepted into this course. May only be taken with the permission of the BIOL co-ordinator. Consult the BIOL 499 manual for details. A final grade for BIOL 499A will be submitted only after completion of 499B. Normally, BIOL 499A and 499B may not be taken concurrently without prior permission of the BIOL 499 co-ordinator]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Cumulative Major Average at least 73%; Honours Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, Bioinformatics students only


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