Course Descriptions - Undergraduate Calendar 2014-2015

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B I O L O G Y 

Notes

  1. The Department of Biology reserves the right to limit enrolment in Biology courses to those individuals whose Academic Plans require those courses.
  2. Biology Courses: While the Biology Department wishes to teach all students who request its courses, the Department's resources are limited. Priority of access to crowded courses will be given to students whose academic plan requires those particular courses be taken. Students who do not attend the first week of laboratory classes may find that their place has been given to another student.

BIOL 100s


BIOL 101 LEC 0.50Course ID: 014690
Biology in the Modern World
This course will introduce a variety of fundamental concepts of biology, with the goal of improving scientific literacy. Topics will include the scientific method, biodiversity, genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: Not open to students in a Biology plan.
Antireq: Any university BIOL course

BIOL 110 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003654
Introductory Zoology
A study of the functional morphology of selected animals with special emphasis on the various grades of organization and development in the different phyla. [Offered: F]

BIOL 120 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003657
Introduction to Plant Structure and Function
A brief introduction to plant diversity, and the anatomy and physiology of vascular plants. The course will include a description of major cell and tissue types, and their organization in roots, stems, and leaves. Topics such as the processes of water and ion uptake, photosynthesis, long distance transport, and growth regulation will also be covered. [Offered: W,S]

BIOL 130 LEC,TST,TUT 0.50Course ID: 011617
Introductory Cell Biology
An introduction to the concepts of cell biology with emphasis on (1) the structural organization of the cell and (2) the function of critical molecular processes that are characteristic of living organisms.
[Note: BIOL 130L may be required for entrance to certain professional/graduate programs. Offered: F,S,W]
Antireq: PHYS 381
Also offered Online

BIOL 130L LAB 0.25Course ID: 011567
Cell Biology Laboratory
Experiments to study the principles of cell biology that are elaborated in BIOL 130. [Offered: F,S]
Coreq: BIOL 130.
Antireq: BIOL 230

BIOL 150 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003668
Organismal and Evolutionary Ecology
This course provides students with an introduction to the basic principles of Scientific Reasoning, Ecology and Evolution. Coverage includes hypothesis testing and the nature of scientific inquiry, basic population genetics, physiological ecology, life histories, dispersal, basic population and community ecology, macroevolution, systematics and classification, as well as functional morphology. [Formerly BIOL 250. Offered: F]

BIOL 165 LEC 0.50Course ID: 009491
Diversity of Life
An introduction to the diversity of living organisms from simple prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes. Current ideas on classification and phylogeny will be compared with traditional schemes. Morphology, ecology, and economic uses of representative Phyla and Divisions will be discussed. [Formerly BIOL 265. Offered: W]

BIOL 200s


BIOL 211 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003655
Introductory Vertebrate Zoology
An introduction to the structure, evolution and development of vertebrate organ systems. [Offered: W]

BIOL 225 LEC 0.50Course ID: 014403
Plants and Civilization
This course examines the importance of plants and the role they have in the local and global community. It introduces students to the impact of plants on the past, present and future of human civilization and describes the importance of plants as sources of food, medicine, fuel, shelter, clothing and psychoactive agents. Topics include medicinal plants and human health, the origin of agricultural crops, plants that changed the course of history, plant-based biofuels, the green revolution, plant biotechnology and genetic engineering of plants. [Offered: F]

BIOL 239 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003665
Genetics
Mendelian genetics. Chromosomal mechanisms in mitosis and meiosis. The origin, inheritance and adaptive significance of chromosomal changes. Nucleic acids as the carriers of genetic information. Natural selection and the evolution of genetic systems. [Formerly BIOL 139. Offered: W,S]
Also offered Online

BIOL 240 LEC 0.50Course ID: 011618
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Introduction to the biology of bacterial and archaeal organisms. Topics include cell structure and function, methods of cultivation, genetics, phylogeny and taxonomy, and metabolic and genetic diversity.
[Note: BIOL 240L must be completed before taking BIOL 241. BIOL 240L may be required for entrance to certain professional/graduate programs. Formerly BIOL 140. Offered: S, F, W]
Also offered Online

BIOL 240L LAB 0.25Course ID: 011568
Microbiology Laboratory
Experiments to study the principles of microbiology that are elaborated in BIOL 240. [Formerly BIOL 140L. Offered: S, F]
Coreq: BIOL 140/240

BIOL 241 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003667
Introduction to Applied Microbiology
Introduction to microbial ecology, environmental microbiology, food microbiology and medical microbiology. Topics in environmental microbiology include biogeochemical cycling and biological treatment of wastes and pollutants. Topics in medical microbiology include concepts of immunology and host-parasite relationships. [Offered: W,S]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240 and 140/240L

BIOL 273 LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003669
Principles of Human Physiology 1
The physiology of major organ systems of the human body. Topics include neurophysiology and peripheral nervous system, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the components of blood, respiratory system and immune system. The combination of BIOL 273 and BIOL 373 covers all of the major topics of human physiology.
[Note: BIOL 273L may be required for entrance to certain professional/graduate programs. Offered: W,S]
Prereq: BIOL 130;
Antireq: BIOL 301A, 301B, SCI 351, 352
Also offered Online

BIOL 273L LAB 0.25Course ID: 011569
Human Physiology 1 Laboratory
Experiments to study the principles of human physiology that are elaborated in BIOL 273. [Offered: W,S]
Coreq: BIOL 273.
Antireq: BIOL 301A, 301B

BIOL 280 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012773
Introduction to Biophysics
Introduction to a physical understanding of biological systems at macro and molecular scales. The course is intended for 2nd year science and engineering students and will cover a broad spectrum of topics in biophysics, as well as an introduction to neurobiology, nanotechnology and biotechnology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: Level at least 2A Honours Science or Engineering plans
(Cross-listed with PHYS 280)

BIOL 300s


BIOL 301 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003651
Human Anatomy
This course will survey the basic human anatomical features of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and reproductive systems. Emphasis will be placed on functional and clinical anatomy.
[Note: Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273

BIOL 302 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003673
Functional Histology
A hierarchical approach to biological structure with an emphasis on functional morphology. Starting with the cell, the fundamental unit of structure and function, the material progressively develops how cells organize to form tissues such as epithelium, connective tissue and muscle. Emphasis on how these tissue building blocks cooperate to form the major organs and organ systems of the human body. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 273

BIOL 303 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003674
Introductory Developmental Biology and Embryology
Fundamental processes and concepts in embryonic development including the acquisition of multicellularity, organization of the early embryo, morphogenesis of tissues, major organ systems, fetal membranes, growth, differentiation and analysis of common developmental defects. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139/239

BIOL 308 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012246
Principles of Molecular Biology
Prokaryote and eukaryote genome structure and replication; mechanisms of gene expression and regulation.
[Note: BIOL 140 recommended. BIOL 308 is recommended for those wishing a general understanding in molecular biology. Students intending to take several upper year molecular biology courses are advised to take BIOL 208 and 308 concurrently. Required as a prerequisite for the following courses: BIOL 428, 431, 434, 435L, 438, 441, 442, 448. Offered: F, S]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139/239;
Antireq: BIOL 330

BIOL 309 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 012245
Analytical Methods in Molecular Biology
An introduction to molecular methods used to analyze the structure of genes and genomes, including DNA sequencing, cloning, restriction mapping and bioinformatic tools. Techniques to monitor transcript and protein abundance, protein-protein and DNA-protein interactions will also be covered.
[Note: BIOL 240 is recommended. Recommended for students intending to take upper year molecular biology courses. Courses requiring this as a prerequisite are: BIOL 342, 335L, 365, 366, 428, 431, 434, 438. Formerly BIOL 208. Offered: F,S]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139/239;
Antireq: BIOL 330

BIOL 310 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003675
Invertebrate Zoology
The diversity of invertebrate animals will be explored in this class. Topics covered will include reproduction, development, life history, feeding, locomotion, and behaviour. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 110, 165

BIOL 321 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 010002
Plant Anatomy and Morphogenesis
Plant structure in relation to tissue formation and development with particular reference to the angiosperms. Cell, tissue and organ differentiation will be discussed. Phenotypic variation in response to environmental influences will also be covered. [Offered in Fall of even years]
Prereq: BIOL 120, 130

BIOL 323 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003680
Plant Physiology
A study of plant physiological processes with an emphasis on the role of key metabolic pathways in plant growth and development. Topics such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, growth regulators, mineral nutrition, water relations, and stress physiology will be covered. [Offered in Fall of odd years]
Prereq: BIOL 120, 130

BIOL 325 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 010179
Flowering Plants
A study of floral morphology in relation to classification and evolution. An introduction to taxonomy and nomenclature. History of taxonomy. Systems of classification. Mechanisms of pollination. [Offered: F]

BIOL 331 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003685
Advanced Cell Biology
The functional organization of cells with particular reference to cell-cell interaction, the structure, function and development of organelles and the biological roles of cellular membranes. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 130 and CHEM 233 or 237; or Science and Business/Biotechnology Specialization or Honours Biotechnology/Economics or Honours Bioinformatics

BIOL 335L LAB,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003724
Molecular Biology Techniques
Selected experiments to provide students with a range of laboratory skills in recombinant DNA technology.
[Note: Formerly Biol 435L. Students in the Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Specialization are encouraged to take this course unless they have previous laboratory experience involving molecular biology techniques. Offered: F,W]
Prereq: BIOL 140L/240L, BIOL 208/309 or 330

BIOL 342 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003691
Molecular Biotechnology 1
Molecular biotechnology applies the principles of recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering, gene cloning) to the development of commercial products. The methods of recombinant DNA technology, molecular diagnostic systems for detecting diseases and transgenic organisms will be discussed.
[Note: Recommended prerequisite BIOL 241. It is recommended that BIOL 342 be taken after completion of second year. Offered: F,S]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, BIOL 208/309 or 330

BIOL 345 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003734
Microorganisms in Foods
Food preservation, spoilage, poisoning and modern concepts in quality assurance programs are studied. The aim is to understand factors governing microbial changes in foods. Problem solving in the food industry is emphasized. Laboratory work will reflect current practices in quality control and testing.
[Note: Formerly BIOL 445. Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140L/240L, 241

BIOL 346 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003735
Microbial Ecology and Diversity
Examples from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and plant- and animal-associated environments, will be used to illustrate the activities and diversity of microorganisms in these habitats. The importance of the ecological roles of microbes to aspects of agriculture, geochemistry, human biology, and the biology of extreme environments will be considered. [Formerly BIOL 446] [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241

BIOL 348L LAB,TUT 0.50Course ID: 011570
Laboratory Methods in Microbiology
Selected experiments to provide students with a range of laboratory skills in microbiology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140L/240L, 241

BIOL 349 PRJ,TUT 0.50Course ID: 013110
Synthetic Biology Project Design
Synthetic biology involves developing new approaches, based on engineering principles, for genetic engineering of biological systems. Students will prepare a comprehensive research proposal for a synthetic biology project of their own design, under the supervision of a faculty member. Attendance at a weekly journal club focused on synthetic biology will be mandatory [Offered: F,W,S].
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3A

BIOL 350 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 012918
Ecosystem Ecology
This course provides an overview of the dynamic interactions among microbes, plants, animals and their physical environment with emphasis on ecosystem structure and function. Topics include the hydrological cycle, biogeochemical cycling, ecological energetics, roles of population and community interactions, paleoecology and current topics in ecosystem science. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 150/250 or ENVS 200

BIOL 351 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003740
Aquatic Ecology
Study of the structure and function of lake and stream ecosystems. The course emphasizes biological components and processes, but includes the origin and nature of lake and stream systems and the fundamentals of surface water chemistry and physics. Human influences, management options and current issues will be examined with readings and project work.
[Note: Formerly BIOL 451. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 150/250 and BIOL 110 or 120.
Antireq: SCI 453, 454, 455

BIOL 354 LAB,LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003694
Environmental Toxicology 1
An introduction to the basic theories, principles and techniques of environmental toxicology. A comparative study of the effects of specific groups of toxicants on ecosystems; biodegradation and cycling. [Offered: F,S]
Prereq: One of CHE 102, CHEM 120, 121

BIOL 355 LEC 0.50Course ID: 013897
Biology of Human Aging
An overview of current aspects of the biology of human aging and the functional changes associated with both normal aging and pathological problems often present in the elderly. Biological theories of aging and normal age-related structural and physiological changes on all of the major body systems will be discussed. Extrinsic factors such as diet and exercise and their role on the aging process will be examined as well as various medical treatments. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130
(Cross-listed with GERON 355)

BIOL 359 LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003748
Evolution
A study of the processes of evolution; the differentiation of populations and the origin of new forms of life. [Offered: F, W]
Prereq: BIOL 139/239

BIOL 361 LEC 0.50Course ID: 009500
Biostatistics and Experimental Design
An introduction to hypothesis testing and experimental design in Biology. Topics will include: exploratory data analysis, analysis of variance, categorical data analysis, correlation, linear regression, multiple linear regression, power analysis, visualization tools and statistical software. [Offered: W]
Prereq: STAT 202 or 204 or ECON 221 or ENVS 278

BIOL 364 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 013528
Mathematical Modelling in Biology
An introduction to the mathematical modelling of biological processes using a variety of techniques including linear difference models, ordinary differential equations, and Markov models. Modelling applications ranging from genetics to ecosystem biology will be addressed. [Offered: F]
Prereq: One of MATH 116,127,137,147; Level at least 3A

BIOL 365 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 009501
Resources in Bioinformatics
A survey of the resources available for analysis of DNA, RNA and protein sequence data. The focus will be on existing tools and databases and their application. Included will be practical experience with web-based bioinformatics tools. This course is primarily intended for Bioinformatics and Computational Science students. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 208/309, MATH 127 or 137.
Antireq: BIOL 366

BIOL 366 LEC 0.50Course ID: 011508
Introduction to Bioinformatics
An introduction to the basics of bioinformatics including computational tools and databases used in the collection and analysis of DNA, RNA and proteins. [Notes: Offered in even numbered years. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 208. Not open to Bioinformatics students

BIOL 370 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003696
Comparative Animal Physiology 1
A comparative study of salt and water balance, nitrogenous excretion and mechanisms of energy acquisition and metabolism in animals inhabiting different environments. Topics also include the integrated response to stress adaptation in animals living in extreme environments. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 110 or 211; BIOL 273

BIOL 371 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003697
Comparative Animal Physiology 2
A comparative study of the nervous, sensory, circulatory, respiratory and reproductive systems of animal species adapted to different environments. Evolutionary adaptations associated with the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life will be a recurring theme. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 370

BIOL 373 LEC 0.50Course ID: 010000
Principles of Human Physiology 2
The physiology of major organ systems of the human body. Topics include the central nervous system, the sense organs, the digestive system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system, and the excretory system. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273.
Antireq: BIOL 301A, 301B, SCI 351, 352
Also offered Online

BIOL 373L LAB,TST 0.25Course ID: 010001
Human Physiology 2 Laboratory
Laboratory exercises to study the principles of human physiology that are described in BIOL 373. [Offered: W]
Coreq: BIOL 373

BIOL 376 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 012976
Cellular Neurophysiology
The structure, function and diversity of ion channel and receptor signalling. The principles of synaptic connectivity and synaptic plasticity, axon guidance, synapse formation, nerve regeneration, and an exploration of in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological recording methods will be covered. [Notes: Recommended: PHYS 111/112; Offered: F (starting Fall 2009 or 2010)]
Prereq: BIOL 273

BIOL 377 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 013977
Systems Neuroscience: From Neurons to Behaviour
Systems neuroscience attempts to explain complex functions of the nervous system in terms of underlying neural circuits and molecules. A diverse range of systems - from sea snails and fruit flies to rodents and humans - with the help of interactive computer simulations will be used to illustrate principles of sytems neuroscience.
[Note: CS 115 or CS 116 recommmended. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273 or PSYCH 261; at least one of MATH 127, 137, PHYS 111, 115, 121

BIOL 382 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 011910
Computational Modelling of Cellular Systems
An introduction to dynamic mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The emphasis is on using computational tools to investigate differential equation-based models. A variety of cellular phenomena are discussed, including ion pumps, membrane potentials, intercellular communication, genetic networks, regulation of metabolic pathways, and signal transduction.
[Note: Offered in the Winter of even numbered years.]
Prereq: One of MATH 118, 119, 128, 138, 148; Third year standing in an Honours plan
(Cross-listed with AMATH 382)

BIOL 383 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012580
Tropical Ecosystems
This course examines the fundamental concepts of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical climates. The course has three sections: (1) biophysical aspects (climate, location, landforms, soil, vegetation), (2) tropical resource systems (forest- and agroecosystems) within the framework of conventional and sustainable resource extraction, and (3) current conservation issues. Case studies are presented.
Prereq: BIOL 150/250 or ENVS 200 or ERS 218 or consent of instructor
(Cross-listed with ERS 383)

BIOL 400s


BIOL 403 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003701
Advanced Topics in Developmental Biology
Explores the cellular and molecular basis of developmental phenomena in animals. Lectures will emphasize the experimental basis for both historical and contemporary knowledge with a focus on the major developmental systems in model organisms. Course content will concentrate on themes that permeate current published research.
[Note: BIOL 208 is recommended as a prerequisite. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 303, (308 or 330) and 331

BIOL 412 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003705
Arthropod Zoology
A survey of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, with emphasis on their classification, interrelationships and ways of life. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 110

BIOL 414 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 014689
Parasitology
This course will explore how parasites affect their host(s) and interact with other parasites. Attention will be given to eukaryotic parasites impacting human and domestic animal health. Public measures of parasite control will be covered. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 110, 165, 359

BIOL 426 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003713
Phycology
Algae and applied uses of algae. Topics include examination of algal groups from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. Uses of algae in industry and food as well as negative impacts of various algal groups. [Notes: Offered in odd numbered years. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 120

BIOL 428 LAB,LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003716
Plant Molecular Genetics
An examination of the current molecular techniques used to study plant development physiology. Topics include mutant isolation, transcript and metabolite profiling, gene silencing and protein localization. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 120, (BIOL 208/309 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 431 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003718
Bacterial Molecular Genetics
Bacterial molecular biology with an emphasis on the use of genetic tools to study the biology of microorganisms. Topics include mutagenesis, conjugation, recombination, gene regulation, plasmids, transposons, bacteriophage and genomics. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, (BIOL 208/309 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 432 LEC,TST 0.50Course ID: 003720
Molecular Biotechnology 2
How recombinant DNA technology is used to produce vaccines, pharmaceuticals, crop plants, and other commercial products will be discussed. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 342

BIOL 433 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003721
Plant Biotechnology
Techniques and applications of plant transformation and cell culture for plant improvement, propagation and chemical production. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 120, 130

BIOL 434 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 003722
Human Molecular Genetics
Recent advances in human molecular genetics will be examined with emphasis on how human disease-causing genes are mapped, identified, isolated and characterized. Examples will draw from research on Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington disease, cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer disease, cancer, vision defects and other disorders. [Offered: F]
Prereq: (BIOL 208/309 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 438 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 003727
Molecular Biology of Animal Development
An examination of the current major issues in the regulation of gene expression during animal development with emphasis on technical and conceptual advances. Current research literature will be reviewed. [Offered: W]
Prereq: (BIOL 208/309 or 330) and (BIOL 308 or 330) and 303

BIOL 439 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003728
Environmental and Natural Products Biochemistry
This course deals with the functions, distribution and environmental ramifications of natural compounds produced by plants and other biological systems. Natural products are those compounds usually described as secondary metabolites, i.e. those apparently non-essential products whose physiological and ecological functions are either obscure or are of peripheral importance to the organism. However, many of these non-essential products have profound competitive, economic and pharmacological significance; and as research proceeds, their physiological roles within the parent organisms are becoming clearer. As well, this course has a strong emphasis on how environmental chemical and physical processes impact on living organisms and their biochemistry. [Offered: F]
Prereq: CHEM 233 or 237 and CHEM 264 or 266

BIOL 441 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003730
Immunology
An introduction to the vertebrate immune response; the cells and tissues of the lymphoid system; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; initiation and regulation of the immune response; the immune system and disease, techniques used in immunology. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241, (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 442 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003731
Virology
A survey of viral structures, life cycles, and the interactions of viruses with their hosts. The laboratory component will include demonstrations of procedures used for viral detection and titration, as well as individual library research projects. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241, (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 443 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003732
Fermentation Biotechnology
Biology of industrial micro-organisms: fermentation systems; fermentation raw materials; downstream processing; biomass production; food fermentations; production of industrial chemicals, food additives, enzymes and other products by fermentation. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241

BIOL 444 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003733
Microorganisms and Disease
A study of the microorganisms involved in pathogenesis, their mode of infection, symptoms and prevention of diseases. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140L/240L, 241

BIOL 447 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003736
Environmental Microbiology
A study of the environmental impact of microorganisms. Aspects of pollution, waste treatment, biodegradation of environmental contaminants, and nutrient cycling will be examined. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241

BIOL 448 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003737
Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry
A study of the physiology of microorganisms. Provides biochemical and molecular level detail on the diverse structures and metabolic functions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal cells. Aspects of microbial growth, nutrition and metabolism are examined in the context of how microorganisms develop diverse solutions for meeting essential requirements for life. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241, (BIOL 308 or 330)

BIOL 449 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012173
Public Health Microbiology
How the health of human populations is influenced by microbial communities. Aspects of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, factors influencing the emergence of microbial pathogens and antibiotic-resistant strains, means to control undesired microbial populations in habitats such as water, biodegradable materials and food will be discussed. Approaches to the regulation and monitoring of microbial agents will also be examined.
[Note: It is recommended that one or more of BIOL 345, BIOL 441, BIOL 444, BIOL 447 be taken before or with BIOL 449. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 241

BIOL 450 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 003739
Marine Biology
Ecological processes and evolutionary adaptation are explored in the world's largest and most diverse ecosystems. The major ocean habitats will be characterized, stressing their importance as resources, moderators of climate and reservoirs of biodiversity. [Notes: Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 150 or 250

BIOL 452 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003741
Quantitative Fisheries Biology
The practices of fisheries science including the effects of industrial fisheries on fish stocks, methods of capture, obtaining, using and interpretation of vital statistics of fish stocks, population estimation, stock-recruitment, growth, mortality and fecundity. Emphasis is placed on the use of statistical information for making ecological inferences about the status of fish populations. Familiarity with linear regression is essential. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 150/250, STAT 202 or 204

BIOL 455 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003744
Ecological Risk Assessment and Management
Examination of the use of scientific information characterizing the risks posed to the environment by anthropogenic stresses. Discussions will take place in the context of aquatic ecology and presume a background of standard aquatic toxicology methods. Methods for assessing risks, including environmental impact assessment, risk quotients, national and international risk assessment paradigms, and cumulative effects assessment will be examined. Critical connections between assessment and management will also be discussed. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 150/250, 354, STAT 202 or 204

BIOL 456 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003745
Population Biology
The analysis of the structure and dynamics of plant and animal populations. Theoretical, mathematical and experimental approaches to the study of population ecology.
[Note: Students are advised that this course involves computer and numerical applications. Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 350 and one of STAT 202, 204, ECON 221, ENVS 278

BIOL 457 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003746
Analysis of Communities
A study of the organization, structure and development of communities with emphasis on vegetation change. Topics include: diversity, stability; succession; sampling procedures and multivariate analysis. [Offered: W]
Prereq: (BIOL 150/250 or ENVS 200) and one of STAT 202, 204, ECON 221, ENVS 278

BIOL 458 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 013953
Quantitative Ecology
The course addresses the integration of mathematical and statistical tools to solve problems in ecology, using examples from individual, population, community, and ecosystem scales. Coursework will explore the relationships between models, hypotheses, experiments and data.
Prereq: (BIOL 150/250 or ENVS 200) and one of (STAT 202, ECON 221, ENVS 278).
Antireq: BIOL 358

BIOL 461 LEC 0.50Course ID: 003751
Advanced Biostatistics
Advanced aspects of statistics and experimental design for biologists. Topics will include analysis of variance (factorial, hierarchical and blocking designs; fixed- and random-effects models); a-priori and a-posteriori comparisons; multivariate analysis of variance; analysis of covariance; multiple linear regression; multivariate statistics (indirect and direct gradient analysis). [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 361; Not open to students in the Faculty of Mathematics.

BIOL 462 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 012909
Applied Wetland Science
Advanced concepts on wetland ecosystems in the context of regional and global earth systems processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling and climate change, applications of wetland paleoecology, use of isotopes and other geochemical tools in wetland science, and wetland engineering in landscape rehabilitation and ecotechnology. Current issues in Canada and abroad will be examined. [Offered: F]
Prereq: (One of BIOL 150/250, CIVE 153, EARTH 121, 153, ENVE 153, ENVS 200, GEOE 153) and (one of CHEM 120, 123, CHE 102) and (one of CIVE 224, ENVE 224, STAT 202).
Antireq: BIOL 453, GEOG 405
(Cross-listed with EARTH 444)

BIOL 465 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 010003
Current Topics in Bioinformatics
This course will deal with current issues and trends in Bioinformatics. The course will be divided between lectures and student seminars. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 365.
Coreq: CS 482

BIOL 466 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012916
Biogeochemical Microbiology
A study of the microbial contribution to Earth's biogeochemical cycles. This course examines the bacterial and archaeal microbial communities that contribute to nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Emphasis is placed on the discovery of new organisms and enzymes involved in these processes and the use of innovative methodologies to explore their ecology
[Note: BIOL 346/446 material recommended. Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241

BIOL 467 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 013532
Plant-Bacterial Interactions
Molecular and biochemical mechanisms used by soil bacteria; bacterial genes involved in plant growth promotion; biocontrol of pathogens; communication between bacteria in the soil; environmental cleanup facilitated by plants and bacteria; regulatory and social issues regarding the deliberate release of bacteria to the environment.
[Note: BIOL 120 recommended. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 241 and one of BIOL 208/309, 308, 342

BIOL 470 LAB,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003750
Methods of Aquatic Ecology
An introduction to methods used to sample and characterize the ecological structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, including basic aspects of the abiotic environment. Field trips to lake and stream sites are combined with laboratory analysis of samples and data. While the main emphasis is on the techniques, the exercises also provide direct experience with some of the natural and anthropogenic variation observable in aquatic systems.
[Note: Formerly BIOL 460L. Field Trip fee of $60 is required toward the cost of transportation.Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 350 or 351

BIOL 472 LEC 0.50Course ID: 013530
Cell Biology of Human Disease
This course focuses on the nature and mechanisms of disease processes. Abnormalities in the structure and function of cells, tissues and organs that underlie disease are explored. Emphasis is placed on current research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of disease and disease therapy, covering topics including inherited disorders, cellular pathology and immunology, diabetes and cancer.
[Note: Offered F]
Prereq: BIOL 273, 331

BIOL 473 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003756
Mammalian Reproduction
This course will provide an in-depth coverage of reproductive biology in a range of mammalian species. Emphasis will be on the principles underlying the regulation of key reproductive processes, from the whole animal to the molecular level. Topics will include applications of these principles to human and veterinary medicine, and ethical problems posed by some reproductive technologies. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 273, 373

BIOL 474 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 010354
Bioprocessing
The course will provide an understanding of the principles and practices of processing biological materials, which represents an essential core activity of the biotechnology, agri-food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Individual processing operations involved and important industrial processes will be developed in this course. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 140/240, 140/240L, 241

BIOL 475 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 011571
Current Topics in Applied Microbiology
Students will explore a variety of topics in applied microbiology as reflected by journal articles in the current literature. [Offered W].
Prereq: BIOL 241, Level at least 3A

BIOL 476 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012174
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
This course is an introduction to the cell and molecular biology of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Following an overview of the gross anatomical structures and specialized functions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system, the course will focus on the cell and molecular biology of neurons. Major topics will include: the synthesis and trafficking of neuronal proteins, voltage and transmitter gated ion channels, membrane potential, and the molecules and mechanisms of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and central synapses. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 273, 331

BIOL 477L LAB,TUT 0.50Course ID: 003698
Techniques in Animal Physiology
Laboratory exercises and computer-based data collection to study the functions of the cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, digestive and excretory systems of vertebrates and invertebrate animals. Students will learn animal handling techniques, data collection with state of the art physiological equipment and data analysis using computer software. Tutorials will allow students to investigate and discuss current animal physiology research topics in greater detail. [Formerly BIOL 374L. Offered: W]
Coreq: BIOL 370, 371

BIOL 479 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012404
Population Genetics and Evolution
This course provides an overview of the interplay among mutation, random and non-random mating, genetic drift, gene flow and selection within and among natural populations. Special emphasis is placed on the dynamic role these factors play in the process of population divergence, and ultimately speciation. Case studies will illustrate the application of population genetic methodology in fields such as ecology, conservation biology, and forensic sciences. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 139/239, 359

BIOL 480 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012427
Molecular Ecology
This course will provide an overview of the application of modern molecular methodologies such as DNA sequencing and microsatellite genotyping to Ecology and Organismal Biology. Topics covered will include parentage and mating systems, population analysis, species delineation and phylogeography. Special emphasis will be placed on the importance and use of molecular methods in conservation biology. [Offered: Winter in even numbered years]
Prereq: BIOL 139/239, 359, 479

BIOL 483 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012166
Animal Cell Biotechnology
A study of the techniques and applications of animal cell culture to biotechnology. Topics include basic cell culture technique, gene modification, products of animal cell culture and large scale productions. [Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130; Level at least 3A

BIOL 484 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 012330
Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics
The role of classical genetic analysis in the context of today's genomic era. Topics: meiotic recombination, meiosis, complementation analysis, chromosome aberrations, and genetic interactions. Methods used in model eukaryotic genetic organisms such as forward and reverse genetic screens, genetic mosaics, conditional mutants, and genetic mapping will be discussed. Examples will illustrate how genes continue to be identified using classical-based approaches in a variety of biological processes, including cell cycle progression, cancer and metastasis, learning and memory, as well as pattern formation and embryonic development. Alternatives to traditional mutagenesis-based screens and the links between classical and molecular genetics will also be discussed. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 130, 139/239; BIOL 308 or 330

BIOL 485 LEC 0.50Course ID: 014515
Conservation Biology
An introduction to conservation biology and the ongoing biodiversity crisis. Topics will include the history of conservation biology and impacts on populations, communities, and ecosystems. [Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 150, 359

BIOL 486 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 013531
Glycobiology
Monosaccharides and their linkages; conformations of oligosaccharides; glycoconjugates/glycoproteins: their physiological functions and how they are synthesized; O- and N-glycosylation; receptors and lectins; glycobiology of plants, viruses and microbes; glycobiology and disease; glycans as bio-energy sources.
[Note: BIOL 331 recommended. Offered: F]
Prereq: BIOL 130 and CHEM 233 or 237 and CHEM 264 or 266

BIOL 487 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 014290
Computational Neuroscience
Introduction to quantitative principles in the analysis of neurophysiological systems. Biophysics of excitable membranes. Encoding of sensory information in neural spiking activity. Bayesian models in perception and motor control. Models of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. [Note for Systems Design Engineering students: It is recommended that one of BIOL 273, 376, 377 or SYDE 384 be taken before or concurrently with SYDE 552. Offered: W]
Prereq: (One of CS 115,135 or 200) and a 200-level STAT course; Level at least 3B within the Faculty of Science
(Cross-listed with SYDE 552)

BIOL 488 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012267
Ecotoxicology from a Watershed Perspective
The course will explore the scientific principles behind predicting the risk of environmental contaminants on ecosystems at the watershed scale. Using an environmental risk assessment framework, case studies will be used with an emphasis on local watershed issues, to more fully understand the mechanisms and processes that control and modify impacts of natural gradients and human activities on the ecology of drainage basins. The course may include a local field trip. [Offered W, even years] Field trip fee: $30-50 to offset cost of transportation.
Prereq: BIOL 354, and one of BIOL 350, 351 or ENVE 276

BIOL 489 LEC 0.50Course ID: 014516
Arctic Ecology
This course explores the unique ecology of Arctic and sub-Arctic ecosystems. Topics addressed will include postglacial history, climate, permafrost, nutrient cycling and food web structure of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater systems, plant and animal adaptations to cold, human ecology, traditional ecological knowledge, climate change, resource extraction, and other human impacts.
[Note: BIOL 350 recommended. Offered: W]
Prereq: BIOL 150 or ENVS 200; Level at least 3B

BIOL 490A LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003762
Biology Field Course I
A two-week field study of terrestrial, aquatic and/or marine biology offered by the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology (OUPFB). OUPFB offers a diverse array of courses annually that normally take place at off campus locations. Field courses consist of lectures, field exercises, and a small project chosen in consultation with the course instructor(s). Contact the Biology Department field course coordinator for additional information.
[Note: Field course fee: $400-$4500. A Biology Department field course information session is held in early January of each year]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 120, 150/250 or ENVS 200, STAT 202, or ENVS 278

BIOL 490B LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003763
Biology Field Course II
A two-week field study of terrestrial, aquatic and/or marine biology offered by the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology (OUPFB). OUPFB offers a diverse array of courses annually that normally take place at off campus locations. Field courses consist of lectures, field exercises, and a small project chosen in consultation with the course instructor(s). Contact the Biology Department field course coordinator for additional information.
[Note: Field course fee: $400-4500. A Biology Department field course information session is held in early January of each year]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 120, 150/250 or ENVS 200, STAT 202, or ENVS 278

BIOL 490C LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003765
Biology Field Course III
A two-week field study of terrestrial, aquatic and/or marine biology offered by the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology (OUPFB). OUPFB offers a diverse array of courses annually that normally take place at off campus locations. Field courses consist of lectures, field exercises, and a small project chosen in consultation with the course instructor(s). Contact the Biology Department field course coordinator for additional information.
[Note: Field course fee: $400- $4500. A Biology Department field course information session is held in early January of each year]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 120, 150/250 or ENVS 200, STAT 202, or ENVS 278

BIOL 490D LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003766
Biology Field Course IV
A two-week field study of terrestrial, aquatic and/or marine biology offered by the Ontario universities program in field biology (OUPFB). OUPFB offers a diverse array of courses annually that normally take place at off campus locations. Field courses consist of lectures, field exercises, and a small project chosen in consultation with the course instructor(s). Contact the Biology Department field course coordinator for additional information.
[Note: Field course fee: $400- $4500. A Biology Department field course information session is held in early January of each year]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 120, 150/250 or ENVS 200, STAT 202, or ENVS 278

BIOL 492 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 003767
Marine Mammals and Seabirds
A three-week field course at the Huntsman Marine Science Centre, St. Andrews, NB. Marine mammals and seabirds will be observed under natural conditions through frequent field trips at sea and ashore. There is a strong emphasis on field research and each student will complete an independent research project. Lectures and labs will introduce the evolution, zoogeography, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behaviour of diving air-breathing vertebrates.
[Note: This course will normally be offered during the first weeks of August. Field trip fee = approx.$1800]
Department Consent Required

BIOL 496 LEC,SEM 0.50Course ID: 014281
Neuroscience Research Seminar
Current and classical topics in neuroscience research will be explored, discussed and presented by students. [Offered: W, even-numbered years]
Prereq: BIOL 376 or 377

BIOL 498A LAB,LEC 0.25Course ID: 003770
Short Biology Field Course 1
A one-week field study of terrestrial, aquatic and/or marine biology offered by the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology (OUPFB). OUPFB offers a diverse array of courses annually that normally take place at off campus locations. Field courses consist of lectures, field exercises, and a small project chosen in consultation with the course instructor(s). Contact the Biology Department field course coordinator for additional information.
[Note: Field trip fee: $400 - $2500. A Biology Department field course information session is held in early January of each year]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 120, 150/250 or ENVS 200, STAT 202, or ENVS 278

BIOL 498B LAB,LEC 0.25Course ID: 003771
Short Biology Field Course 2
A one-week field study of terrestrial, aquatic and/or marine biology offered by the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology (OUPFB). OUPFB offers a diverse array of courses annually that normally take place at off campus locations. Field courses consist of lectures, field exercises, and a small project chosen in consultation with the course instructor(s). Contact the Biology Department field course coordinator for additional information.
[Note: Field trip fee: $400- $2500 A Biology Department field course information session is held in early January of each year]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: BIOL 110, 120, 150/250 or ENVS 200, STAT 202, or ENVS 278

BIOL 499A LAB 0.50Course ID: 003772
Senior Honours Project
A senior-year research project.
[Note: Normally, only students attaining either a 73% or better cumulative major average or a 78% or better major average in their two most recent terms (normally 3A and 3B) will be accepted into this course. May only be taken with the permission of the BIOL 499 co-ordinator. Consult the BIOL 499 manual for details. A final grade for BIOL 499A will be submitted only after completion of 499B. Normally, BIOL 499A and 499B may not be taken concurrently without prior permission of the BIOL 499 co-ordinator]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Cumulative Major Average at least 73%; Honours Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, Bioinformatics students only

BIOL 499B LAB 0.50Course ID: 003773
Senior Honours Project
A senior-year research project.
[Note: Normally, only students attaining either a 73% or better cumulative major average or a 78% or better major average in their two most recent terms (normally 3A and 3B) will be accepted into this course. May only be taken with the permission of the BIOL co-ordinator. Consult the BIOL 499 manual for details. A final grade for BIOL 499A will be submitted only after completion of 499B. Normally, BIOL 499A and 499B may not be taken concurrently without prior permission of the BIOL 499 co-ordinator]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Cumulative Major Average at least 73%; Honours Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, Bioinformatics students only