Course Descriptions - Undergraduate Calendar 2017-2018

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E N V I R O N M E N T,  R E S O U R C E S   A N D  S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y

Notes

Refer to "Schedule of Classes" to determine when courses are offered.

ERS 100s


ERS 100 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005304
Foundations: Environment, Resources and Sustainability
Introduces analytical approaches for problem definition and problem solving that are appropriate for a wide range of environment and resource issues. Considers the limitations of approaches that perceive and attempt to manage issues as isolated phenomena. Also examines alternative approaches that recognize the broader context and underlying roots in ethical positions and ecological, economic and institutional systems.
Prereq: Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only.
Antireq: ERS 110

ERS 101 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015422
Approaches: Environment, Resources and Sustainability
This course is one of 'solutions-based education' designed to use environmental case studies from local, provincial, national and international communities. We will analyze historical and contemporary cases and consider the interdisciplinary lessons that can be learned from them within the context of climate and technological change, political and economic constraints, community engagement and communication. The specific cases may change year by year depending on current events. Students will be encouraged to critically engage the scholarly, non-governmental, public media literatures and personalities.

ERS 102 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015423
Sustainability and the Really Long View
Focusing on the relationship between complexity and energy in bio-physical, ecological and social contexts, we review trends in 'Big History' as it has unfolded from the Big Bang to the Internet. The course explores the implications of this 'deep-time' perspective for our understanding of the great challenge of sustainability.
Prereq: Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only

ERS 200s


ERS 201 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015424
Environmental Policy, Politics and Governance
This course provides students with an introduction to processes of environmental policy, politics and governance. The roles of various actors, discourses and institutions involved in environmental policy-making and governance will be examined. These processes will be illustrated through an examination of a range of environmental issues from the local to the global level.
Prereq: Level at least 2A; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only;
Antireq: ERS 210, ERS 275 001 F15

ERS 202 FLD,LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015425
Natural Resources Ecology
This course explores the ecology and context of Canada's main natural resources including mining, forestry, energy and agriculture. In addition, this course presents alternatives to status-quo approaches including organic agriculture, sustainable forestry and a movement away from traditional energy.
Prereq: Level at least 2A Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only.
Antireq: ERS 275 001 F16

ERS 210 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 010023
Environmental Analysis and Solutions III: Greening Communities
The course considers how 'green' communities might be fostered in a contemporary urban setting. It includes concepts and theories related to transformational learning, community resilience, socio-ecological systems thinking, communications, and public engagement. Students learn some basic qualitative methods which are then applied to a term project. Field sites are located in the Region of Waterloo (including the University of Waterloo). Students also learn how to undertake research in an ethical manner and how to effectively communicate their ideas and findings.
Prereq: ENVS 178; Level at least 1B; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only.

ERS 215 LEC 0.50Course ID: 005311
Environmental and Sustainability Assessment I
An introduction to processes and techniques for incorporating environmental considerations in planning and evaluating proposals for future undertakings that may have significant social and biophysical effects. The course provides an overview of methodologies for, and controversies surrounding, the design and conduct of biophysical and socioeconomic impact studies, and the testing of reported findings. The main focus is on the purposes and design of environmental assessment processes, with particular reference to the Canadian federal and Ontario provincial legal mandates, and the evolution of assessment into a sustainability framework.
Prereq: Level at least 1B

ERS 225 LEC 0.50Course ID: 015426
Gendering Environmental Politics
Social identities such as gender, race, and class shape our interactions with our environment. This course provides the tools to analyze gender and other forms of social difference in the context of environmental and resource issues. This course also examines how governance, policy, and politics can be used to create social and environmental change.
Prereq: Level at least 2A

ERS 234 LEC 0.50Course ID: 013898
Forest Ecosystems
This course examines the fundamental concepts of forest ecology and the role of forests in terrestrial ecosystems. The course will be divided into four sections, and will integrate case studies to introduce the student to current research problems in the study of forest ecology. Topics include: impacts/dependence of humans on forests; transfer and cycling of energy and nutrients; biophysical interactions; and forest management practices.
Prereq: Level at least 2A

ERS 253 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005342
Communities and Sustainability
Exploration of the interconnected roles that communities at various scales can play in a larger transition towards sustainability. Examination of structures, activities, options and initiatives and decision making processes involving a wide range of key concerns and opportunities and applications Illustrative cases include largely urban communities, the urban periphery and the broader influences that affect them.
Prereq: Level at least 2A

ERS 265 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 013671
Water: Environmental History and Change
This course explores issues of water management from ancient to recent history. Tensions related to water supply and demand, agriculture and urbanization, health and sanitation, gender and household access to water resources, urban water and wastewater infrastructure, trans-boundary politics and water privatization debates are considered. Readings and detailed assessments of national and international cases from Europe, Western Asia, and North America are used as a basis for in-class discussion and research projects.
Prereq: Level at least 2A Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only.

ERS 270 LEC 0.50Course ID: 005312
Introduction to Sustainable Agriculture
Provides both survey and detailed examinations of the ethics, science, and techniques involved in sustainable agriculture. Topics normally include management of crops, soil, water, nutrients, wastes and pesticides, integrated pest management, organic farming, permaculture, ecological farm planning, use of genetically modified organisms, urban agriculture in developing nations, and innovations such as computer modelling and precision farming.

ERS 275 OLN,RDG 0.50Course ID: 005313
Special Readings/Seminar on Select Topics
Background reading and study in consultation with faculty. Typically utilized when a student must study a topic in connection with other work, but no course offering in that topic is available.
Instructor Consent Required

ERS 283 FLD,OLN 1.00Course ID: 012892
Ontario Natural History: Species and Patterns
An introduction to natural history, the art and science of identifying organisms, and observing their behaviour and ecological interactions. The students will reside for approximately nine days in a location in Ontario that has exceptional biodiversity. They will learn about local species (with an emphasis on insects, plants, and terrestrial vertebrates), human history and conservation initiatives. Each student must complete a project on an ecological "pattern" in consultation with the professor.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $350+HST; will not exceed $440+HST.]
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: ENVS 200; Level at least 2A

ERS 294 LEC 0.50Course ID: 010224
The Sacred Earth: Religion and Ecology
An examination of the past and present effects of Christianity and other world religions on human treatment of the natural world. Historical background, recent debates, and contemporary approaches to the ethical issues will be investigated.
[Note: This course fulfils an Area 3C requirement for Religious Studies majors.]
(Cross-listed with RS 285)

ERS 300s


ERS 300 PRJ,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005370
Social Ecological Systems Analysis
This course provides an opportunity to learn and begin to apply systems-based tools in the context of an interdisciplinary research problem defined by the student in cooperation with the teaching-team. Students are provided with an introduction to the conceptual tools of systems thinking and resilience that help understand the dynamics of social change and social innovation. These conceptual tools will then be applied by students to provide a framework for interdisciplinary research and to develop a richer understanding of a case study of fostering social change and building adaptive capacity.
Prereq: Level at least 2A; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only;
Antireq: ERS 311

ERS 301 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015433
Sustainability Thought, Practice and Prospects
A survey of humans making a living and otherwise interacting with each other and the biophysical environment in a complex world from ancient times to the present. Emphasis on the great agricultural and industrial transitions, reactions to their consequences, the rise of current sustainability concerns, and implications for transitions today in the pursuit of desirable and viable futures.
Prereq: Level at least 2A; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only;
Antireq: ERS 310

ERS 315 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005339
Environmental and Sustainability Assessment II
Continuing from concepts developed in ERS 215, this course places more emphasis on case studies and projects by students. The course provides a synthesis of ecological, physical, economic, socio-cultural and institutional concerns, as well as experience in the use of impact assessment methodologies and approaches, as a key element in achieving more informed and responsible decision making.
Prereq: ERS 215 and ENVS 200

ERS 316 SEM 0.50Course ID: 011666
Urban Water and Wastewater Systems: Integrated Planning and Management
Focus on urban water management in North America, Australia, Western Asia and the Global South as illustrative systems or cases. Given changing climate conditions, there is increased likelihood of extreme events (e.g., urban flooding and drought) and new water management challenges. Development and maintenance of urban water and wastewater systems, along with demand and supply management planning, efficiency mechanisms, development and equity concerns, will be examined.
Prereq: Level at least 2A

ERS 317 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005332
Waste Management
This course will deal with the solid waste system, landfilling, incineration, energy from waste, recycling, composting, reduction and reuse. The context will be primarily Ontario and municipal waste management.
Prereq: Level at least 2B

ERS 318 LAB,STU 0.50Course ID: 015556
Photography for Sustainability
Use digital photography to communicate perspectives on sustainability topics; develop and strengthen creative photography and digital image processing skills. [Notes: Course fee required; will not exceed $50 + HST; some digital photography experience beneficial; access to a RAW-capable digital camera essential.]
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3A;
Antireq: ERS 375 001 F16

ERS 320 SEM 0.50Course ID: 014369
Economics and Sustainability
This course offers an examination of relationship between the economy, the environment and sustainability. The course aims to provide students with an understanding of the differing viewpoints on the economy-environment relationship and their associated methods, including their strengths, weaknesses and applicability in a policy context.
Prereq: Level at least 3A.
Antireq: ERS 464

ERS 321 LEC 0.50Course ID: 015427
Coastal Social-Ecological Systems
This interdisciplinary course integrates science and policy issues to consider coastal systems as dynamic and linked systems of people and nature. Course content and case studies emphasize key challenges and drivers of change in coastal systems, as well as frameworks and approaches to understand and sustainably govern coastal settings.
Prereq: Level at least 2A.
Antireq: ERS 375 002 F16

ERS 328 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015428
Environmental Politics and System Change
Incremental, transformative and revolutionary system change is seen to derive from a variety of (technological, ecological, institutional, political) drivers. Exploring the history and sociology of environmental politics, the course reviews the drivers of disruptive system change focusing on the role of exogenous shocks, the cumulative impact of environmental science, radical ideas, disruptive technology, mainstream party politics and institutional adaptation, social innovation and traditional `revolutionary' politics.
Prereq: Level at least 2A

ERS 330 LEC 0.50Course ID: 005336
Environmental Journalism 1
Introduction to writing (and preparing graphics) for print media on environmental issues, through practical experience working on the environmental journal Alternatives: Perspectives on Society, Technology and Environment. Each participant covers an environmental news beat in a selected regional (e.g. Atlantic Canada) or sectoral (e.g. law, technology, waste) topic area.
Instructor Consent Required

ERS 335 FLD,LEC 0.50Course ID: 013301
Restoration Ecology
This course will promote class discussion of the theoretical foundations of restoration ecology and their relationship to project implementation, current academic and professional practice, and forecast trends in the discipline. There will be an emphasis on how restoration ecology is changing in the face of small and large scale ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Class will include instruction and experience on how consultants and private or NGO sectors address restoration ecology. The course will emphasize experiential education in the form of a project scoped for time allotted and involve site design, experimental design, project implementation, statistical analysis of data, and professional level writing for academic and practitioner audiences.
Prereq: Level 2A.
Antireq: ERS 211

ERS 337 LEC 0.50Course ID: 015420
ReWilding and Ecological Restoration
Focus is on restoration and conservation at landscape scale, including an emphasis on connectivity, reintroduction of keystone species, novel ecosystems, re-introduction of apex predators, herbivores, and omnivores. Because ReWilding can be infused with various political agendas and ideologies, technocratic issues, policy ambitions, and governance issues, students can expect to experience a course focused on ecology and technical skills but contextualized and connected to the larger concepts of socioecological change and resilience. There may be opportunities for field experiences.
Prereq: ENVS 200 or BIOL 150

ERS 340 FLD,LEC,OLN 1.50Course ID: 014098
Ecosystem Assessment
A term long "blended" course with 4 of the 12 weeks typically spent at the Waterloo Summit Centre for the Environment at Huntsville ON. The course focuses on ecosystem assessment skills and practice. The primary vehicles will be acquiring and improving field identification skills of organisms and formal use of ecosystem assessment. As part of this course, students receive certification and accreditation of the provincially-recognized Certificate of Ecological Land Classification.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $2100+HST; will not exceed $2600+HST.]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 2B

ERS 341 FLD,LEC,OLN 1.50Course ID: 014099
Professional Conservation and Restoration Practice I
A term long "blended" course with 4 of the 12 weeks typically spent at the Waterloo Summit Centre for the Environment at Huntsville ON. Students will acquire and improve practical site inventory and assessment skills for restoration and conservation goals while considering old growth and high integrity sites, and site limitations, and potential for bioengineering, bioremediation, vegetation installation and erosion-control measures.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $1700+HST; will not exceed $2100+HST.]
Department Consent Required
Coreq: ERS 340

ERS 342 FLD,LEC,TUT 1.00Course ID: 015018
Professional Conservation and Restoration Practice II
Focusses on the applications and practice of restoration ecology as a profession. Will involve a series of site visits and on-site discussions of the successes and challenges of a restoration project with professional restoration ecologists who manage the project. The course will provide a platform for learning the advanced and professional principles of restoration ecology and the restoration of ecosystem services.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $700+HST; will not exceed $875+HST.]
Department Consent Required

ERS 346 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 015020
Wildlife Ecology
This course introduces the main concepts and principles of wildlife ecology. Topics include: population dynamics, animal behavior, habitats, genetics, predation, and habitat use. The lab component will introduce students to wildlife data collection, analysis, and interpretation.
Prereq: ENVS 178 or STAT 202; ENVS 200 or BIOL 150

ERS 365 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 013672
Water Governance
Water governance refers to the processes and institutions through which societies make decisions and take actions that affect water. A profound, world-wide shift in the nature of water governance is occurring because governments can no longer be the primary source of decision making authority regarding water. Instead, through mechanisms that range from markets to co-management arrangements, citizens, non-government organizations and corporations are now playing key roles in water governance. The course explores major water governance challenges in Canada, and assesses different ways of addressing or resolving them.
Prereq: Level at least 3A; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only.

ERS 370 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005345
Corporate Sustainability: Issues and Prospects
A course that examines the ways in which sustainability issues and business operations have interacted, considering progressively 'greener' corporate responses and broader sustainability challenges.
Prereq: Level at least 2B; Not open to Environment and Business students

ERS 372 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 011667
First Nations and the Environment
First Nation environmental issues are often complex and require a holistic approach where the lines between different disciplines (e.g. natural, physical, health, and social sciences) are often obscured. The environment, as described in this course, includes the natural (biological) and built (social, political) settings. Case studies will be used to illustrate significant issues.
Prereq: Level at least 2A

ERS 373 FLD,LEC,OLN,TUT 0.50Course ID: 014716
Special Topics in Environment, Resources and Sustainability
Course content varies according to instructor availability and demand for specific topics in environment, resources and sustainability and may include field courses.
[Note: Field trip fee may be charged.]
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 2B

ERS 374 FLD,LEC,OLN,TUT 1.00Course ID: 014717
Special Topics in Environment, Resources and Sustainability
Course content varies according to instructor availability and demand for specific topics in environment, resources and sustainability and may include field courses.
[Note: Field trip fee may be charged.]
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 2B

ERS 375 OLN,RDG,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005346
Special Readings/Seminar on Select Topics
Background reading and study in consultation with faculty. Typically utilized when a student must study a topic in connection with other work, but no course offering that topic is available.
Instructor Consent Required

ERS 382 LEC,OLN 0.50Course ID: 005326
Ecological Monitoring
This block field course provides students with theoretical and practical knowledge of ecological monitoring through active participation in programs applying protocols developed by the Smithsonian Institute/Man and the Biosphere Program. The course is a collaborative effort with professional staff from selected governmental agencies, and independent organizations.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $400+HST; will not exceed $500+HST. Offered: After spring examinations, prior to the fall term.]
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: ENVS 200 or BIOL 150

ERS 383 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012580
Tropical Ecosystems
This course examines the fundamental concepts of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical climates. The course has three sections: (1) biophysical aspects (climate, location, landforms, soil, vegetation), (2) tropical resource systems (forest- and agroecosystems) within the framework of conventional and sustainable resource extraction, and (3) current conservation issues. Case studies are presented.
Prereq: ENVS 200 or Instructor Consent
(Cross-listed with BIOL 383)

ERS 400s


ERS 400 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015429
Social-Ecological Approaches to Sustainability
This course examines how societies and organizations deal with and respond to social-ecological system complexity, uncertainty and change, and emphasizes tools, strategies and approaches to foster environment and resource sustainability.
Prereq: Level at least 3A; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only;
Antireq: ERS 410

ERS 401 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015430
Sustainability Science and its Critiques
This course is the capstone opportunity for students to engage in an advanced critical analysis regarding the validity and evidence for the notion of sustainability and where it intersects with the full range of the sciences (social, physical, natural) and political action. The course will explore what alternatives exist within and outside of the theoretical framework of sustainability and what implications these all have for the relationship and practical operations between society and the sphere of issues related environment and resources. While there will be some lectures, the intent is to have students participate more intensively in both class and tutorial discussions.
Prereq: ERS 300 and ERS 301; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only

ERS 402 SEM,TUT 0.50Course ID: 015431
Senior Honours Research Seminar
This course focuses upon research on complex problems that are typical when examining how to foster environmental sustainability and sustainable use of resources. The seminar format is designed to allow students to engage in deeper discussions about how to approach and attempt to resolve these complex problems. There will be tutorials to facilitate discussion in smaller groups. Learning opportunities will vary from term to term and may include small projects.
Prereq: Level at least 4A; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only;
Antireq: ERS 413

ERS 403A PRJ 0.50Course ID: 005401
Senior Honours Thesis
This course is for students who have defined a problem related to the mission and scope of the School of Environment, Resources and Sustainability and will undertake original research that leads to production of a thesis. ERS 403A normally consists of final revisions to a concise research proposal and beginning of the research tasks; this process may vary slightly, depending on the nature of the research. The research process and thesis write-up will continue and be concluded in ERS 403B.
[Note: Students who wish to take this course should begin intensive planning and discussion with potential advisors in a field relevant to their intended research. Students must secure agreement with a tenured/tenure track professor in SERS to act as the thesis advisor no less than 4 months before the course's initiation. Preparation is expected to begin 6-12 months in advance to the course's initiation.]
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3B; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only.
Antireq: ERS 402; ERS 411A

ERS 403B PRJ 0.50Course ID: 005402
Senior Honours Thesis
This course is a continuation of ERS 403A. It normally consists of a continuation of the research process that began in ERS 403A and leads to the completion of the research and the thesis write-up. It is for students who have defined a problem related to the mission and scope of the School of Environment, Resources and Sustainability and will undertake original research that leads to production of a thesis. The procedures outlined in ERS 403A must be followed.
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3B; Environment, Resources and Sustainability students only.
Antireq: ERS 402; ERS 411B

ERS 404 LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 005377
Global Environmental Governance
Examination of the ways in which world society is striving to address environmental challenges by means of 'global governance' - that is, international organizations and institutions intended to deal with these challenges. The history of international environmental politics will be reviewed, specific organizations and other actors involved in global environmental governance will be examined and the management of particular global environmental challenges investigated.
Prereq: Level at least 3A
(Cross-listed with PSCI 432)

ERS 406 LEC 0.50Course ID: 015023
Paths to Sustainability
Experiential and reflective course examines everyday significance of several 'metaphors we live by' both as citizens and as environmentalists. Examines links between language, worldview and sustainability by contrasting metaphors used in sustainability discourse, including ecological balance and health, ecosystem services, planetary boundaries, resilience and restoration.
Prereq: Level at least 3A

ERS 413 LEC 1.00Course ID: 013962
Senior Honours Research Seminar
This course consists of intensive readings, seminar discussion and a major one-term research paper. It will be taken instead of ERS 411A/B or ERS 412A/B. One particular socio-ecological thematic area will be used in areas such as environmental health, environmental decision-making, climate change, ecological restoration, environmental history, etc. A major analytical research paper and presentation will be required, as well as participation in weekly seminar discussions.
Prereq: Level at least 3B; Environment, Resource and Sustainability students only;
Antireq: ERS 411A/B, ERS 412A/B

ERS 415 LEC 0.50Course ID: 005386
Environmental and Sustainability Assessment III
Continuing from concepts developed in ERS 215 and ERS 315, this course will focus on the latest concepts and applications of assessment principles and practices. The course focus will vary from year to year following development in the field. Topics may include assessment into land use planning and community design, policy and program assessment, and assessment of new technologies and alternative futures.
Prereq: ERS 315

ERS 422 FLD,OLN,RDG 0.50Course ID: 014683
Biosphere Reserves as Social-Ecological Systems
A term-long reading course introducing students to social-ecological systems, using the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Georgian Bay. Internationally known as "experiments in sustainable development," biosphere reserves pursue conservation of biodiversity, sustainable resource management, and aim to build social and ecological resilience. Students will link theories from their readings to guest lectures and excursions that address aquatic ecosystems, sustainable forestry, species at risk management, and indigenous knowledge.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $400+HST; will not exceed $450+HST.]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3A

ERS 431 SEM 0.50Course ID: 015432
Ecological Consequences of Climate Change
This course focuses on the ecological consequences of climate change and associated effects on biodiversity. This course examines the challenges a changing climate poses for ecology, conservation biology research and management. The evidence that we will use in this course will be taken from scientific papers, expert knowledge systems and a variety of alternative approaches.
Prereq: Level at least 3A

ERS 443 FLD,LEC,TUT 1.00Course ID: 015025
Ecosystem Field Research
This field research course is designed to involve students in high level intensive research on the function and/or structure of ecosystems as they change because of successional and human processes. Students will normally undertake an experimental approach to an ecosystem-based problem and evaluation outcomes of their experiment or long-term data sets. The course will be focused on one ecosystem per offering, e.g. marine, aquatic, terrestrial forest, mountain. It is expected that the course will be off-campus at a field station or protected area within North America but there may be opportunities to deliver it outside of North America. When offered, the syllabus will provide details on exact location.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $2500+HST; will not exceed $3125+HST.]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: ENVS 178 or STAT 202; ENVS 200 or BIOL 150

ERS 446 LAB,LEC 0.50Course ID: 015021
Wildlife Management
This course introduces the main concepts and principles for the management of wildlife species. This course builds on ERS 346 and explores the application of the principles from that course to the management of wildlife. The lab component will build on the skills of wildlife data collection, analysis, and interpretation presented in ERS 346.
Prereq: ENVS 178 or STAT 202; ENVS 200 or BIOL 150, ERS 346

ERS 454 SEM 0.50Course ID: 014682
Parks and Protected Areas: Issues and Trends
Government decisions to conserve rather than develop natural resources are nationally and internationally significant, but are often controversial. This course examines public policy objectives, issues and diverse perspectives related to the conservation of marine and terrestrial environments through the establishment and ongoing management of parks and protected areas. Lectures, seminar discussions and assignments engage students in the exploration of key public policy conservation issues.
Prereq: Level at least 3A

ERS 461 SEM 0.50Course ID: 013956
Food Systems and Sustainability
This course examines dimensions of food systems sustainability and food security, from production to consumption, from local to global scales, in the Global North and South. Specific themes covered in the course include technological and genetic change in food production, resource depletion and wider environmental impacts of the industrial food system, and policy, market-oriented, and civil society initiatives to bring about change in the food system, including organic production and localizing food systems.
Prereq: Level at least 3B.
Antireq: ERS 489/PSCI 489/GEOG 429
(Cross-listed with GEOG 461)

ERS 462 LEC 0.50Course ID: 013955
Global Food and Agricultural Politics
This course examines the global food and agriculture system. Specific themes to be covered include political and governance issues related to the Green Revolution, global food corporations, agricultural trade liberalization, food aid, international agricultural assistance, the global agro-chemical industry, and agricultural bio-technology.
Prereq: Level at least 3B.
Antireq: ERS 489/PSCI 489/GEOG 429
(Cross-listed with GEOG 462, PSCI 488)

ERS 473 FLD,LEC,TUT 0.50Course ID: 014718
Special Topics in Environment, Resources and Sustainability
Course content varies according to instructor availability and demand for specific topics in environment, resources and sustainability and may include field courses.
[Note: Field trip fee may be charged.]
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3B

ERS 474 FLD,LEC,OLN,TUT 1.00Course ID: 010174
Special Topics in Environment, Resources and Sustainability
Course content varies according to instructor availability and demand for specific topics in environment, resources and sustainability and may include field courses.
[Note: Field trip fee may be charged.]
Instructor Consent Required

ERS 475 OLN,RDG 0.50Course ID: 005388
Special Readings/Seminar on Select Topics
Background reading and study in consultation with faculty. Typically utilized when a student must study a topic in connection with other work, but no course offering that topic is available.
Instructor Consent Required

ERS 484 LEC 0.50Course ID: 012719
Soil Ecosystem Dynamics
This course examines the role of soil in the environment, its importance as a natural resource in agricultural and forest productivity, and the effects on soil resources as a result of different management practices. It is divided into three sections: 1) introduction to soil composition, formation, and physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; 2) soil degradation and management approaches to rehabilitation; 3) soil pollution and the role of soil in maintaining environmental integrity.
Prereq: ENVS 200 or Instructor Consent
(Cross-listed with GEOG 404)