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Undergraduate Officer
L. Sorbara, OPT 248, ext. 3085
T.D. Williams, OPT 335, ext. 3081

Note: Students in other disciplines may register for Optometry courses only upon the approval of the Associate Dean of Science for Optometry


OPTOM 100 F 2C 0.5
History and Orientation
A brief history of the profession and the development of visual science; a consideration of legal and organizational development of optometry; the role of professional associations. The role and scope of optometry and its relationship to other professions and the community.

OPTOM 104 F 3C,3L 0.5
Anatomy of the Eye 1
The gross, microscopic and ultra structure of ocular tissues. The embryology and comparative anatomy of the eye will be emphasized. The relationship of the eye to the vascular supply of the head and the nervous system will be studied. This course is credited only upon completion of OPTOM 114.

OPTOM 105 F 3C,1T 0.5
General Pathology 1
Basic disease processes, including inflammation, degeneration, neoplasia; pathogenic microbiology and related diseases; immunity and hypersensitivity; disease caused by physical agents; diseases of the organ systems.

OPTOM 106 F 3C,3L,2T 0.5
Geometrical Optics
Reflection and refraction. Image formation. Optical properties of plane and curved surfaces, prisms and thin lenses. Thick lens theory and lens systems. Ray construction. Optical and ophthalmic instruments.
Prereq: PHYS 121/121L, 122/122L, MATH 107/108

OPTOM 109 F 3C,3L 0.5
Visual Perception 1: Perception of Light
Sensory processes involved in visual perception. Topics include spectral sensitivity, light and dark adaptation, temporal and spatial resolution, and principles of photometry.

OPTOM 111 W 3C,3L 0.5
Fundamentals of Visual Optics
The eye as an optical instrument. Ametropia and emmetropia. The refracting mechanism. The stimulus to accommodation. Ocular transmission. Visual acuity and visual performance; stray light in the eye; analysis of the retinal stimulus pattern.
Prereq: OPTOM 106

OPTOM 114 W 3C,2L 0.5
Anatomy of the Eye 2
A continuation of OPTOM 104
Prereq: OPTOM 104

OPTOM 115 W 4C,1T 0.5
General Pathology 2
A continuation of 105.
Prereq: OPTOM 105

OPTOM 149 W 3C 0.5
Public Health Optometry
Introduction to the foundation and basic sciences of public health optometry with an emphasis on the epidemiology of vision problems.


OPTOM 216 F 3C,4L 0.5
Ophthalmic Optics 1
Properties of single vision spherical, cylindrical and toric lenses. Optics of prisms and lens combinations. Properties of ophthalmic lens materials. Absorptive lenses. Field of view. Magnification effects of thin lenses. Ophthalmic laboratory procedures.
Prereq: PHYS 246, OPTOM 106

OPTOM 241 F 3C,3L 0.5
Ocular Motility
Ocular motility; kinematics of eye movements, muscle actions, measurements of eye movements, types of eye movements, innervational systems subserving eye movements, clinical applications.
Prereq: OPTOM 111

OPTOM 242 F 3C,3L 0.5
Clinical Techniques 1
Lectures and laboratories on clinical techniques for examination of the optical properties and tissues of the eye.
Prereq: OPTOM 111

OPTOM 244 W 3C,2L 0.5
Neurophysiology of Vision
The neural processing of colour, brightness, movement and form by the retina, lateral geniculate, cortex, superior colliculus and other brain centres. Neural mechanisms underlying binocular depth perception, the accommodative response and eye movement.
Prereq: OPTOM 104/114

OPTOM 245 F 3C,2L 0.5
Ocular Pathology 1
Etiology, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and epidemiology of diseases of the ocular adnexa and anterior segment of the eye; ocular emergencies; primary health care responsibilities.
Prereq: OPTOM 105/115

OPTOM 246 W 3C,4L 0.5
Ophthalmic Optics 2
Optics and design of bifocal and multifocal lenses. Aberrations of thin lenses. Trigonometric ray tracing and design of best performance lenses. Lenses for aphakia. Optics of rigid contact lenses. Protective lenses. Prescription standards. Ophthalmic laboratory procedures.
Prereq: OPTOM 106/216

OPTOM 251 W 3C,3L 0.5
Visual Perception 2: Monocular and Binocular Visual Processes
Physical space and visual space. Fundamental perceptual processes, binocular vision, stereopsis, binocular space perception. Systems of analysing binocular vision. Theory of aniseikonia. Perceptual aspects of aniseikonia.
Prereq: OPTOM 109, 241

OPTOM 252 W 3C,3L 0.5
Clinical Techniques 2
Clinical techniques for the examination of the binocular relations of the nonstrabismic patient, with particular emphasis on the study of the relationship between accommodation and convergence. Techniques of phorometry, prism vergence tests, relative accommodation tests, retinoscopy, and monocular and binocular cross cylinder tests.
Prereq: OPTOM 241/242

OPTOM 254 F 2C,2L 0.5
Physiology of the Eye
The physiology of the smooth muscles of the eye, the extraocular striate muscles, the lacrimal apparatus, the cornea, the iris, the lens, the ciliary body and the vitreous body. Production and drainage of aqueous and related influences on intraocular pressure. The vascular supply of the eye.
Prereq: OPTOM 104/114

OPTOM 255 W 3C,2L 0.5
Ocular Pathology 2
Etiology, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and epidemiology of diseases of the posterior segment of the eye; higher visual and oculomotor systems; multisystem diseases.
Prereq: OPTOM 245

OPTOM 264 F 3C 0.5
Pharmacology 1: Medications and the Eye
Coverage of the principles of pharmacology (pharmaceuticals, pharmacokinetics, and pharmaco-dynamics), drug classification and mechanism of action. Medication use by the population; coverage of medications used to manage most major diseases and consideration of the effects of these medications on the eye and vision.


OPTOM 342 W 3C,2L 0.5
Case Analysis and Optometric Therapies
Clinical application of the visual sciences: Methods of analysing clinical data, emphasizing differential diagnosis, scientific control of the psycho-physical measurements, effective record keeping, recommended optometric therapies and prognosis.
Prereq: OPTOM 352

OPTOM 346A F 2C,2L 0.5
Ophthalmic Optics 3
Spectacle frame materials. Fitting and adjusting techniques. Selection of lens design. Lenses for high myopia. Dispensing of eye protectors. Optics of low vision aids. Patient counselling and management of dispensing problems. Laboratories provide experience in practical aspects of ophthalmic dispensing.
Prereq: OPTOM 216, 246

OPTOM 346B W 2L, 0.0
Ophthalmic Optics 3
Continuation of 346A. Laboratories provide experience in practical aspects of ophthalmic dispensing.
Prereq: OPTOM 216, 246

OPTOM 347 F 3C,3L 0.5
Contact Lenses 1
Patient examination and consultation. Indications and contra- indications for contact lens wear. Factors influencing lens selection and design. Principles of fitting and evaluating rigid and hydrogel soft contact lenses. Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of contact lens materials. Optical and mathematical concepts. The ocular physiological response to contact lens wear. Care and maintenance of contact lenses.
Prereq: OPTOM 246, 252, 254

OPTOM 348A/B F,W 1C,8 each Clinic 1.0 each
Optometry Clinic
Students are assigned to various areas within the clinic where, under direct clinical faculty supervision, they participate in the provision of optometric services to clinic patients. In addition to primary care, they are exposed to the provision of contact lens, ocular health and optical services.
Prereq: Successful completion of Year Two

OPTOM 350 W 4C 0.5
Practice Management and Jurisprudence
Practice management. Financial management. Interprofessional relations. Office design. Optometric assistants. Professional associations. Legal aspects of practising optometry in Canada.

OPTOM 351 F 2C,2L 0.5
Visual Perception 3: Colour Vision
Introduction to colour vision and colorimetry. Laws of colour mixture, chromaticity diagrams. Colour matching and colour discrimination. Characteristics of normal and defective colour vision. The design and application of colorimeters, anomaloscopes, and colour vision screening tests. Congenital and acquired defects of colour vision.
Prereq: OPTOM 109

OPTOM 352 F 3C,3L 0.5
Clinical Techniques 3: Strabismus and Aniseikonia
Detection and evaluation of sensory and motor characteristics of vision in aniseikonic, strabismic and non-strabismic patients. Classifications, diagnoses, prognoses, and modes of therapy for aniseikonic, non-strabismic, and strabismic patients.
Prereq: OPTOM 242, 251, 252

OPTOM 353 W 2C 0.5
Professional Ethics and Optometric Communication
A survey of alternative philosophical perspectives involved in resolution of sample ethical and moral issues confronting optometrists. Awareness of the explicit and implicit contents of written and vocal communications. An exploration of optometric communication issues related to letter and report writing, patient counselling, patient referral, fee presentation, and complaint management.

OPTOM 364 F 3C 0.5
Pharmacology 2: Ocular Diagnostics and Therapy
Principles of ophthalmic pharmaceutical preparation and pharmacokinetics. Selection and use of all ophthalmic diagnostic pharmaceutical agents (DPA's), including dyes, stains, topical ocular anesthetics, mydriatics, cycloplegics, miotics; palliative therapeutic agents (artificial tears, etc.) and ophthalmic therapeutic pharmaceutical agents (TPA's). Coverage will include product details and recommended guidelines for their use and follow-up procedures.
Prereq: OPTOM 245, 255, 264

OPTOM 367 W 3C 0.5
Contact Lenses 2
Detection and management of chronic and acute complications induced by contact lenses. Contact lens management options for special conditions such as dry eye, aphakia and keratoconus (and other corneal irregularities). Disposable lenses and replacement regimens. Extended wear options. Alternative management of refractive errors such as orthokeratology and refractive surgery. Contact lenses and presbyopia.
Prereq: OPTOM 245, 347, 364

OPTOM 368 W 3C,3L 0.5
Gerontology and Low Vision
An introduction to the epidemiology of aging and the clinical effects of aging on the visual system. The optometric assessment and management of the aging patient. An introduction to low vision care with emphasis on assessment and management of visual impairment and disability, including optical and non-optical therapies. The epidemiology of vision impairment, multidisciplinary management, and associated rehabilitative services will be discussed.
Prereq: OPTOM 242, 252, 346

OPTOM 372 W 3C 0.5
Pediatric Optometry and Learning Disabilities
Consideration of the development of the optical and sensory- motor functions of the visual system provides the basis upon which this course examines the clinical testing and treatment procedures for infants and young children. The aspects of vision problems related to learning difficulty including tests and measurements taken by optometrists. The role of the optometrist in conjunction with the parents, teachers, and psychologists in assisting children to achieve is discussed.
Prereq: OPTOM 242, 252

OPTOM 374 W 2C 0.5
Ocular Pathology 3
Genetic contributions to systemic and ocular disease. A review of molecular and clinical genetics with special reference to the eye, including carrier detection. Inherited conditions of particular interest, e.g. colour vision anomalies, albinism, maculopathies, refractive errors, retinoblastoma.
Prereq: OPTOM 245, 255


OPTOM 412 S,F,W 0.75
Case Analysis 2
Building on analytic principles developed in OPTOM 342, this course will involve discussion of cases drawn by the coordinator(s) from Clinic. Faculty discussants will direct the students in assessing the basic and clinical science features of specific cases. Cases involving all aspects of optometric practice will be chosen in a balanced fashion.
Prereq: All third year Optometry courses

OPTOM 441 S,F,W 3L 0.5
Optometry Research Proposal
An independent paper in the form of literature review on the student's area of interest, experimental design proposition, and preliminary data. Before registering in the course the student and the designated supervisor must submit to the coordinator a research proposal for the student's research area. The format of the paper is to be determined with the supervisor and may be in chapters, in journal style, or in an oral presentation, during the registered term, at seminar sessions (OPTOM 609/ OPTOM 629).
An elective (approved by the undergraduate officer) may be chosen as an alternative to OPTOM 441.

OPTOM 451 S,F,W 3L 0.5
Optometry Research Project
An independent research project on an approved topic, supervised by a faculty member. This is the completion of the research proposal in OPTOM 441 and it is recommended that the format of the report, to be determined with the supervisor, follow the format selected for OPTOM 441.
Prereq: OPTOM 441 (77% minimum mark)

OPTOM 448A/B/C S,F,W 36 Clinic 3.0 each
Optometry Clinics
Optometry students learn all aspects of clinical practice by providing direct patient care under faculty supervision and instruction. Areas of clinical activity include oculo-visual assessment, the diagnosis and management of ocular disease, contact lens care, diagnosis and treatment of oculomotor-sensory disorders, low vision rehabilitation, and ophthalmic dispensing. In addition to the main university clinic, student will gain experience in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community health clinics, specialty care clinics, nursing homes, schools, private practices, and institutions for people with special needs. Each student will complete a one term externship in ocular therapeutics and disease management and a primary care rotation in private practice. Students will be required to show successful performance in each of the components of clinical training to which they are assigned. Evaluation may involve oral examination, assessment of performance with patients, record review, and/or demonstration of techniques.
Prereq: All third year Optometry courses

OPTOM 461A-Z S,F,W 3L 0.5
Advanced Study Topics
Intensive study of a specialty optometric topic of mutual interest to a professor and a small group of students. Consult course co-ordinator annually for list of offerings.

OPTOM 471 S,F,W 3L 0.75
Clinical Techniques 4
This course will provide an opportunity for optometry students to discuss and evaluate clinical techniques, instrumentation, and ideologies not covered in the current curriculum. Students will be encouraged to use their basic knowledge of the vision sciences to provide a perceptive critique of the clinical subjects addressed.
Prereq: All third year optometry courses

OPTOM 499A F,W 3T 0.5
Comprehensive Ocular Embryology/Anatomy/Physiology
Basic and clinical principles in ocular embryology, anatomy and physiology. Consult published syllabus.

OPTOM 499B F,W 3T 0.5
Comprehensive Ophthalmic Optics
Basic and clinical principles of thick lenses, thin lenses, ophthalmic prisms, cylindrical lenses, lens materials, relevant magnification effects, contact lenses, aberrations, ray tracing, absorptive lenses, lens coatings, impact resistance, multifocal lenses, prescription tolerances, lens prescription writing, lens verification, frame selection, specification, and adjustment. Consult published syllabus.

OPTOM 499C F,W 3T 0.5
Comprehensive Clinical Optometry
Optometric assessment and management of errors in refraction, acuity, accommodation, fixation, ocular motility and binocularity. Contact lens applications and the ocular response to contact lens wear. Visual impairment and blindness, the assessment and management of the low vision patient. Consult published syllabus.

OPTOM 499D F,W 3T 0.5
Comprehensive General & Ocular Pathology, Pharmacology
Basic, clinical, and management principles relating to individual disease processes such as inflammation, degeneration, neoplasia, the role of microorganisms and the specific diseases associated with resistance, immunity, hypersensitivity, and diseases affecting organ systems. Consult published syllabus.

OPTOM 499E F,W 3T 0.5
Comprehensive Physiological Optics
Basic and clinical principles relating to binocular vision, space perception, aniseikonia, ocular motility, colour vision processes, optics of the eye, radiometry and photometry. Consult published syllabus.

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