EARTH 600s

EARTH 601 Stratigraphic Paleontology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000876
Analysis of the factors controlling the distribution of organisms and fossils. Important zone fossils of invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants will be studied with reference to their vertical and lateral distribution. Problems of migration, dispersal, and provincialism will be considered in detail.

EARTH 602 Paleontology (0.50) RDGCourse ID: 000877
Selected topics in paleontology will be studied in depth with emphasis on evolution and paleoecology.

EARTH 603 Micropaleontology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 010449
A systematic examination of major groups of microfossils, particularly palynomorphs, and insects, with emphasis on their classification, evolution, paleoecology and stratigraphic application.

EARTH 606 Principles of Palynology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000879
The morphology, taxonomy, biostratigraphy and paleoecology of marine and non-marine palynomorphs from Paleozoic to Recent time are examined. Palynomorph morphology and taxonomic principles and methods of pollen analysis, pollen dispersal, deposition and preservation are explored and related to the geological record and their use in environmental reconstructions. The role of pollen analysis in Quaternary paleoecology is presented.
Prereq: EARTH 236 or consent of Instructor

EARTH 610 Sedimentology - Recent Sediments (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000880
The origin of recent clastic and non-clastic sediments, the study of composition, structures, relationships, and environments towards an interpretation of ancient sedimentary rocks. The origin and significance of sedimentary structures, environmental associations, sedimentological models, hydrodynamics.

EARTH 611 Sedimentology - Ancient Sediments (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000881
Interpretation of ancient sedimentary rocks. Sedimentation and tectonics, basin evolution, continental margins. Ancient clastic and chemical suites, diagenetic indicators, evolution of sedimentary suites through time.

EARTH 612 Carbonate Sedimentology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000882
Weekly seminars will introduce current concepts in a variety of subject areas in the deposition and diagenesis of carbonate sediments. Laboratory exercises will involve study of Pleistocene and older carbonate rock suites from a selection of geologic settings. Several laboratories will be devoted to introduction of common analytical techniques such as cathodoluminescence and SEM.
Prereq: EARTH 333 or 433

EARTH 620 Metamorphic Tectonites (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000883
The study of textural and structural features of deformed metamorphic rocks. A synthesis of micro- and mega-scopic techniques directed at elucidating sequences of deformation and crystallization. Quantitative methods in the study of deformed rocks. Elements of style and symmetry in tectonites.

EARTH 621 Aqueous Geochemistry (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000884
a) Basic thermodynamics and activity-fugacity relationships. Chemical equilibria, ion association and complexing, oxidation-reduction reactions. Models for aqueous equilibria in high concentration solutions. b) Interaction of groundwater with porous media; mineral dissolution/precipitation reaction kinetics, ion exchange, surface ionization of oxides. c) Use of computer codes such as PHREEQE and GEOCHEM to simulate mass transfer in geochemical systems. Examining and modelling chemical evolution in groundwater flow systems.
Prereq: EARTH 421

EARTH 622 Environmental Isotope Hydrology and Geochemistry (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000885
This course explores the application of environmental isotopes (principally 2H, 13C, 15N, 18O,34S) as tracers of inorganic and organic processes and cycles in nature, with an emphasis on the use of isotope tracers in water and climate studies, including runoff generation analysis, isotope-mass balance studies, climatology and paleoclimatology, and in studies of biogeochemical cycling. Other topics are tailored to student interest and research focus across the broad spectrum of geological, hydrological and biological questions that can be addressed using isotope techniques. Note: Open to graduate students in physical and biological sciences, physical geography and engineering.

EARTH 623 Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000886
Application of light and heavy stable isotope systems as process tracers and exploration tools for a wide variety of low-temperature and high-temperature ore deposits. The use of stable isotopes for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations and for reconstruction of local and global redox conditions during deposition of petroleum source rocks. Offered in alternate years.

EARTH 624 Environmental Biogeochemistry (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000180
(Cross-listed with BIOL 624)
The influence of physical, chemical and microbiological processes on groundwater geochemistry are examined. Background concepts in microbial ecology and organic geochemistry are developed and related to subsurface environments. Treatment is given to biodegradation of organic pollutants, microbially-mediated redox reactions and organic-metal interactions. EARTH 439 is strongly recommended.

EARTH 625 Advanced Petrology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000888
Advanced numerical techniques and theory in quantifying the behavior of rocks and fluids at high temperatures and pressues. Application of experimental and natural data to the study of tectonic, metamorphic and igneous processes.

EARTH 626 Global Biogeochemical Cycles (0.50) LAB,LECCourse ID: 014365
The global cycles of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus , sulfur, silicon and iron, are intimately linked to the chemical composition of the atmosphere and ocean, earth's climate, global biological productivity and diversity, and the evolution of sedimentary rocks. This course focuses on the quantitative representation of the processes and mechanisms driving the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrient elements on both short (100-104 years) and long (>104 years) time scales. Attention will also be given to the perturbation of biogeochemical cycles by human activity. To explore the interactions between the processes, as well as between the elemental cycles themselves, we will use mass balance models. Each student will carry out an independent project based on an elemental cycle of his/her choice.
Instructor Consent Required

EARTH 627 Radioactive Isotope Systems (0.50) LECCourse ID: 015224
Principles of radioactive decay and geochronology. Applications of geochronology and isotopic tracing using the U-Th-Pb, Re-OS, Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and Ar-Ar Isotope systems, U-series disequilibrum, cosmogenic nuclides, and extinct radionuclides. Offered in alternate years.

EARTH 630 Genesis of Metalliferous Ore Deposits (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000889
Selected topics will be studied in depth with emphasis on deposits associated with volcanic activity.

EARTH 631 Field Methods in Soil and Rock Mechanics (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000890
Site investigation techniques for strength and deformation properties, load tests, bore hole tests, rock classification, monitoring methods and instrumentation, borehole geophysics for geomechanical properties, correlation to case histories.

EARTH 632 Geology of Industrial Minerals (0.50) LECCourse ID: 010450
Geological aspects of locating, working and utilizing industrial minerals and constructional materials. Problems of quantity, quality and value of such deposits will be evaluated and will be specifically related to those deposits in Southern Ontario. Mineral economics and urban geology will be considered. Field trips will be an important part of the practical work of the course.

EARTH 634 Geomechanics of In Situ Processes (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000891
Geomechanics of in situ methods of energy recovery for heavy oil and minerals. Thermoelasticity, hydraulic fracture geomechanics, multi-phase system compressibility, remote and direct monitoring methods.

EARTH 635 Clay Mineralogy (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000892
Structure, classification, properties, and nomenclature of clay materials. Genesis and environmental and engineering significance of clay minerals. Identification of clay minerals by X-ray diffractometry and other techniques. Clay minerals in diagenesis and sedimentary basin analysis.

EARTH 638 Advanced Engineering Geology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000893
Time dependent behaviour of rocks, Griffiths crack theory, failure criteria for rocks, in situ stresses and their origins, behaviour of discontinuous rock masses, introductions to analytic and numerical methods for rock mechanics. Case studies, term project.
Prereq: EARTH 437

EARTH 640 Quaternary Geology of North America (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000894
Selected topics in the North American Quaternary such as Great Lakes history, Canadian organic deposits and fossil record, glacial and non-glacial stratigraphy, and the history of the last continental ice-sheet.
Prereq: EARTH 440 or consent of Instructor

EARTH 641 Advanced Quaternary Ecology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000895
Discussion of current topics in Quaternary ecology at the advanced level. Emphasis will be on application and significance of Quaternary ecological techniques to paleoenvironmental reconstructions, climatic change, land-use history, anthropogenic disturbance, and environmental modelling.
Prereq: EARTH 441 or consent of Instructor

EARTH 642 Geoliminology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000896
An introduction to basic concepts on the morphology, geology, geochemistry, sediment-related processes, and paleoecology of lakes. The focus is on the lake/watershed system and processes of the water column and associated terrestrial processes.

EARTH 643 Nutrients in Watersheds (0.50) LECCourse ID: 014638
Nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), silica (Si) and carbon (C) are vital to organisms, and play an essential role in our everyday life. Used in excess, they can also become a nuisance with unwanted effects on the environment. This course focuses on nutrients from a hydrological perspective, using a river basin based viewpoint. The course covers general nutrient cycles, then nutrient budgets in watersheds, and how to model nutrient fluxes in catchments, using different approaches. We will also discuss pollution history, using nutrients and metal pollution in river basins over the last centuries. This will enable students to understand challengers that might arise from a variety of issues, from pollution history to current practices. Individual student projects will be based on either a particular element or a particular model.
Instructor Consent Required

EARTH 644 Global Problems of Quaternary Geoglogy (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000897
Selected topics with global perspective, such as the deep sea record, long terrestrial records, Quaternary time boundaries, dating methods, paleotemperature analyses, isostasy, and sea level changes.

EARTH 645 Geology of the Great Lakes Region (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000898
Selected topics dealing with the stratigraphy, paleontology, tectonic development, and economic geology of the Great Lakes Basin. Approximately one third of the course will be devoted to each of Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Quaternary geology.

EARTH 646 Paleolimnology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 012794
(Cross-listed with BIOL 646, GEOG 648)
This course examines the use of stratigraphic records from lakes to reconstruct environmental change. Topics include sediment coring techniques, radiometric dating methods, analysis of physical, geochemical and biological indicators, and case studies demonstrating applications to address scientific and management questions. Practical experience is gained from a lake sediment coring field trip and subsequent laboratory analyses. *eligible for MES.

EARTH 650 Physical Processes in Groundwater Systems (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000899
This course aims to deepen the student's understanding of physical processes occurring in natural groundwater systems. Flow and transport processes and their interrelationships with the characteristics of the porous medium are studied and the governing equations developed. Topics covered include the fundamental concepts of physical hydrogeology, flow in the saturated and unsaturated zones, flownet analysis, immiscible flow of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), contaminant transport in porous and fractured media, stochastic principles of transport in heterogeneous media, coupled nonlinear processes, and applications in groundwater contamination/remediation. Recommended: EARTH 456 (can be taken concurrently with EARTH 650).
Prereq: MATH 213A and EARTH 359 or 458

EARTH 651 Advanced Groundwater Modelling (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000900
This course covers advanced numerical modelling topics in groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface. Topics to be explored include two- and three-dimensional transport in groundwater systems, density/ heat-dependent flow/transport, flow in the vadose zone, immiscible flow of non-aqueous phase liquids, multiphase dissolution and mass transfer processes, transport of biodegrading or chemically interacting contaminants, transport in fractured systems, transport in the vapour phase. The focus is on the use of models to obtain insight into the complex coupled processes that control groundwater contamination and remediation problems. Students will work with their own as well as existing models.
Prereq: EARTH 456 or 650 and 656

EARTH 653 Contaminant Hydrogeology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000901
Physical and chemical processes influencing contaminant behaviour in groundwater with emphasis on field approaches. Interpretation of process effects in the context of various causes of groundwater contamination such as those related to landfills, chemical spills, mining and agriculture. Field experiments and case studies. (EARTH 621 and EARTH 657 or equivalent are recommended).
Instructor Consent Required

EARTH 654 Groundwater Research Management (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000902
Advanced topics in the design and analysis of aquifer tests, behaviour of aquifer-aquitard systems, aquifer exploration, groundwater resource evaluation in undeveloped areas, artificial recharge, induced recharge, conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater, effects of excessive groundwater withdrawals, role of analog and digital models in groundwater management.
Prereq: EARTH 458 and 650 or consent of Instructor

EARTH 656 Groundwater Modelling (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000903
This course is an enriched version of EARTH 456 for graduate students. It introduces the student to numerical modelling techniques in groundwater science, with an emphasis on a sound understanding of the fundamental principles as a basis for developing and using models in a research environment. Numerical techniques including finite difference, finite element, and particle tracking methods are studied and applied to the solution of problems in groundwater flow, aquifer mechanics, flownet generation, and advective-dispersive transport. Proper modelling approaches, error analysis, stability, discretization constraints, pitfalls, and model misuse are discussed. Students will be developing some of their own groundwater models, and will be obtaining hands-on experience with state-of-the-art interactive groundwater models in the PC laboratory. Prior experience with FORTRAN is essential. Recommended: MATH 111B or equivalent. Students without the required prerequisite may seek consent of the instructor.
Prereq: CS 102 and EARTH 359 and EARTH 650 or consent of Instructor

EARTH 657 Organic Contaminants in the Subsurface (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000904
Fundamental processes governing the fate of organic contaminants in soil and aquifer systems. Emphasis on partitioning between phases (dissolution, sorption and volatilization) with applications. Students without the required prerequisite may seek consent of the instructor.
Prereq: EARTH 459 and 650 or consent of Instructor

EARTH 658 Flow and Transport in Fractured Rock (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000905
An introduction to the physical hydrogeology of fractured rock. Topics will include a review of the structural geology of fractured rocks, development and validity of the cubic law, groundwater flow and contaminant transport in discrete fractures and fracture networks, hydraulic testing methods and the hydrogeology of low-permeability environments. Recommended: Differential Calculus.
Prereq: EARTH 458 and 459

EARTH 659 Chemical Hydrogeology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000906
This course builds on the fundamental principles of aqueous chemistry and water-rock interactions with emphasis on groundwater environments. Topics include the evolution of natural groundwater chemistry, chemical aspects of contaminant hydrogeology such as hydrocarbons, radioactive wastes, acid mine drainage and industrial and municipal waste disposal. Geochemical models are introduced and applied by students in a course project. Students without the required prerequisite may seek consent of the instructor.
Prereq: EARTH 458 and 221 or, EARTH 231 and CIV E 375 or consent of Instructor

EARTH 661 Analytical Methods in Mathematical Geology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000907
A course intended to provide MSc and PhD students with a working knowledge of analytical techniques for solution of differential equations governing flow and mass transfer in hydrogeologic systems. Use of various transform methods such as Fourier and Laplace will be covered and applied to a variety of problems of hydrogeological interest. The course will consist of lectures, selected problem assignments and/or individual projects. Recommended: Second Year Calculus.
Prereq: EARTH 458

EARTH 668 Advanced Applied Geophysics (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000908
A field-oriented course on current methodology in the general area of geotechnical or engineering geophysics as applied to environmental problems. Typical topics covered: well logging and time domain electromagnetic surveys for groundwater supply; magnetic and terrain conductivity surveys for waste materials; ground penetrating radar applications to stratigraphy and contamination; streaming potential surveys of dam leakage. Usually taught with EARTH 461.

EARTH 671 Field Methods in Hydrogeology (0.50) LECCourse ID: 000909
A course dealing with the theory and applications of field techniques in hydrology. Physical, chemical, and isotopic methods are included with applications to groundwater and surface water hydrology. The course will consist of lectures, field activities, projects and assignments. All will be conducted over a 3-week time period at the end of the Winter term in April. Students without the required prerequisite may seek consent of the instructor.
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: EARTH 458 or 650 and consent of Instructor

EARTH 690 Current Problems in Geology (0.50) SEMCourse ID: 000911
Seminars will be held to cover major topics excluded from other available courses. Graduate students will be required to present for discussion short colloquia based on their reading of assigned topics. Participation in the discussions, as well as the actual presentation of papers, will be an integral part of the course.

EARTH 691 Special Studies for MSc Students (0.50) RDGCourse ID: 000912
Course credit may be given for special studies related to the research interest of a student and a member of the faculty by special arrangement.
Instructor Consent Required

EARTH 692 Special Studies for PhD Students (0.50) RDGCourse ID: 000918
Course credit may be given for special studies related to the research interest of a student and a member of the faculty by special arrangement.
Instructor Consent Required

EARTH 695 Earth MSc Seminar Proposal (0.50) SEMCourse ID: 014777
A written research proposal, and a seminar and defence of the proposal to be given by all MSc students (thesis option) within two terms of entering this program.